U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula Li
Molecular Weight 6.941
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 1

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of LITHIUM CATION

SMILES

[Li+]

InChI

InChIKey=HBBGRARXTFLTSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/Li/q+1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula Li
Molecular Weight 6.941
Charge 1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment: Description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538681 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371914 | http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/3/lithium

Lithium is an alkali metal widely used in industry. Lithium salts are indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder. The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. The specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Lithium appears to preserve or increase the volume of brain structures involved in emotional regulation such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, possibly reflecting its neuroprotective effects. At a neuronal level, lithium reduces excitatory (dopamine and glutamate) but increases inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmission; however, these broad effects are underpinned by complex neurotransmitter systems that strive to achieve homeostasis by way of compensatory changes. For example, at an intracellular and molecular level, lithium targets second-messenger systems that further modulate neurotransmission. For instance, the effects of lithium on the adenyl cyclase and phospho-inositide pathways, as well as protein kinase C, may serve to dampen excessive excitatory neurotransmission. In addition to these many putative mechanisms, it has also been proposed that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are key to its therapeutic actions. In this regard, lithium has been shown to reduce the oxidative stress that occurs with multiple episodes of mania and depression. Further, it increases protective proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and B-cell lymphoma 2, and reduces apoptotic processes through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and autophagy.

Originator

Curator's Comment: The first lithium mineral petalite, LiAlSi4O10, was discovered on the Swedish island of Utö by the Brazilian, Jozé Bonifácio de Andralda e Silva in the 1790s. It was observed to give an intense crimson flame when thrown onto a fire. In 1817, Johan August Arfvedson of Stockholm analysed it and deduced it contained a previously unknown metal, which he called lithium. He realised this was a new alkali metal and a lighter version of sodium. However, unlike sodium he was not able to separate it by electrolysis. In 1821 William Brande obtained a tiny amount this way but not enough on which to make measurements. It was not until 1855 that the German chemist Robert Bunsen and the British chemist Augustus Matthiessen obtained it in bulk by the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
6.53 µM [IC50]
2.0 mM [Ki]
Target ID: O95861
Gene ID: 10380.0
Gene Symbol: BPNT1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
0.3 mM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
LITHIUM CARBONATE

Approved Use

Lithium is indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder.

Launch Date

1965
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
[Remarkable thymoanaleptic effect of lithium gluconate in recurrent melancholic states].
1971 Mar 20
[Lithium gluconate in emotional disturbances (preliminary results; current orientation)].
1971 Oct 20
[Modifications of serum creatine phosphokinase activity under the influence of lithium gluconate in Duchenne's myopathy].
1972 Nov
[Lithium gluconate: systematic and factorial analysis of 104 cases which have been studied for 2 and one-half to 3 years in patients regularly observed and showing periodic cyclothymia or dysthymia].
1974 Mar
[Lithium therapy in manic depressive diseases in old age].
1975
[Studies of lithium-induced tremor by means of different measurement methods].
1975
[Lithium induced diabetes insipidus with response to antidiuretic hormone].
1975 Apr 28
Sinoatrial block during lithium treatment.
1975 Aug
The renal pathology in a case of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus.
1975 Jun
[Side-effects of lithium therapy].
1975 Mar
[Treatment of lithium induced polyuria].
1975 Mar 10
[Treatment of drug-resistant depressive states with lithium gluconate].
1977 Mar
[Do lithium salts have a place in the treatment of severe hyperthyroidism? (author's transl)].
1977 Oct 8
[Cardiac electrophysiological effects of lithium gluconate in anesthetized dogs].
1978 Sep-Oct
[Evaluation of the potential cardiotoxicity of propranolol-lithium gluconate association (author's transl)].
1980 Mar-Apr
[Ultrastructural modifications in the thyroid glands of mice treated with lithium gluconate].
1982 Feb 8
[Crystalline inclusions of the mouse thyroid. Effect of chronic treatment with lithium gluconate].
1986
Familial hypokalaemic periodic paralysis: prevention of paralytic attacks with lithium gluconate.
1991 Jan
The effects of lamotrigine on the pharmacokinetics of lithium.
2000 Sep
Antidepressant-induced mania in bipolar patients: identification of risk factors.
2001 Apr
Changes in quantitatively assessed tremor during treatment of major depression with lithium augmented by paroxetine or amitriptyline.
2001 Apr
Ataxia from lithium toxicity successfully treated with high-dose buspirone: a single-case experimental design.
2001 Aug
Prevention of cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by lithium: involvement of oxytocinergic neuronal activation.
2001 Dec 15
Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in older people.
2001 Jul
Lithium-induced exacerbation of stutter.
2001 Jul-Aug
Bupropion manic induction during euthymia, but not during depression.
2001 Jun
A historical cohort study of kidney damage in long-term lithium patients: continued surveillance needed.
2001 Jun
Molecular cloning of a novel isoform of diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase: a potential target of lithium therapy.
2001 Jun
[Nephrotic syndrome and lithium therapy].
2001 May 26
[A case of atropine-resistant bradycardia in a patient on long-term lithium medication].
2001 Nov
Vigabatrin protects against hippocampal damage but is not antiepileptogenic in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
2001 Nov
Lithium use in octogenarians.
2001 Oct
[Lithium treatment and hyperparathyroidism].
2001 Sep 20
Steroid-induced mania in an adolescent: risk factors and management.
2001 Summer
Sinus node dysfunction associated with lithium therapy in a child.
2002
Lithium-induced tremor treated with vitamin B6: a preliminary case series.
2002
Central pontine myelinolysis manifested by temporary blindness: a possible complication of lithium toxicity.
2002 Dec
[Reversible cardiomyopathy induced by psychotropic drugs: case report and literature overview].
2002 Dec
Connection between lithium and muscular incoordination.
2002 Feb
Intracerebroventricular antisense to inositol monophosphatase-1 reduces enzyme activity but does not affect Li-sensitive behavior.
2002 Jan
[Progressive renal failure caused by lithium nephropathy].
2002 May 25
[Manic state during the addition of lithium in the case of depression resistant to imipramine].
2002 Nov 9
Lithium gluconate in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a multicenter, randomised, double-blind study versus placebo.
2002 Nov-Dec
Mood stabilisers plus risperidone or placebo in the treatment of acute mania. International, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
2003 Feb
Lithium gluconate 8% vs ketoconazole 2% in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a multicentre, randomized study.
2003 Jun
Effect of the lipid peroxidation product acrolein on tau phosphorylation in neural cells.
2003 Mar 15
[Lithium].
2004 Mar
[Lithium gluconate 8% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis].
2007 Apr
Anti-inflammatory effects of lithium gluconate on keratinocytes: a possible explanation for efficiency in seborrhoeic dermatitis.
2008 Jun
Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.
2017 Apr
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Optimal patient response to Lithium Carbonate usually can be established and maintained with 600 mg t.i.d. Optimal patient response to Lithium Oral Solution usually can be established and maintained with 10 mL (2 full teaspoons) (16 mEq of lithium) t.i.d. Such doses will normally produce an effective serum lithium level ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mEq/l. Dosage must be individualized according to serum levels and clinical response. Regular monitoring of the patient’s clinical state and of serum lithium levels is necessary. Serum levels should be determined twice per week during the acute phase, and until the serum level and clinical condition of the patient have been stabilized.
Route of Administration: Oral
Although lithium at a high concentration (10 mM) activated β-catenin in different types of neurons, β-catenin shifted to the nucleus at a therapeutically relevant concentration (1 mM) only in thalamic neurons, both in vivo and in vitro.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
Record UNII
8H8Z5UER66
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
LITHIUM CATION
Common Name English
LITHIUM, ION (LI1+)
Common Name English
LITHIUM ION
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-ATC N05AN01
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C597
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
NDF-RT N0000175751
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DSLD 499 (Number of products:145)
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
Code System Code Type Description
EPA CompTox
DTXSID10169612
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:57:40 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Lithium (medication)
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PRIMARY
SMS_ID
300000046938
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PRIMARY
DAILYMED
8H8Z5UER66
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PRIMARY
RXCUI
1546265
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PRIMARY RxNorm
CHEBI
49713
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PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C69075
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PRIMARY
FDA UNII
8H8Z5UER66
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PRIMARY
IUPHAR
5212
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PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
28486
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PRIMARY
CAS
17341-24-1
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PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01356
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PRIMARY
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