U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS


Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C7H5O3.Li
Molecular Weight 144.0531
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0







Molecular Formula C7H5O3
Molecular Weight 137.1131
Charge -1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula Li
Molecular Weight 6.94
Charge 1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Curator's Comment:: Description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538681 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371914 | http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/3/lithium

Lithium gluconate is used in oligotherapy for psychological problems (normothymia, manic depressive psychosis) under special biological surveillance and more specifically when the lithium rate is to be controlled. Lithium gluconate ointment was significantly more effective than placebo, with a complete clinical remission after 4 and 8 weeks respectively in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis. At low concentration (1.6 mM), Li enhanced TNFalpha secretion, whereas, at higher concentration (5 mM), Li significantly enhanced IL10 expression and secretion in skin models. However, there was no significant modulation of Li on IL6 and TGFbeta1 secretion. Moreover, Li at 5 mM significantly decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expressions by differentiated keratinocytes. As Li concentration during topical treatment is probably closer to 5 mM than to 1 mM, the therapeutic effect of Li gluconate in seborrhoeic dermatitis may be explained by two anti-inflammatory actions: an increased expression and secretion of IL10 and a decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 by keratinocytes.


Curator's Comment:: The first lithium mineral petalite, LiAlSi4O10, was discovered on the Swedish island of Utö by the Brazilian, Jozé Bonifácio de Andralda e Silva in the 1790s. It was observed to give an intense crimson flame when thrown onto a fire. In 1817, Johan August Arfvedson of Stockholm analysed it and deduced it contained a previously unknown metal, which he called lithium. He realised this was a new alkali metal and a lighter version of sodium. However, unlike sodium he was not able to separate it by electrolysis. In 1821 William Brande obtained a tiny amount this way but not enough on which to make measurements. It was not until 1855 that the German chemist Robert Bunsen and the British chemist Augustus Matthiessen obtained it in bulk by the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride.

Approval Year



Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
6.53000000000000025 µM [IC50]
2 mM [Ki]
Target ID: O95861
Gene ID: 10380
Gene Symbol: BPNT1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
0.299999999999999989 mM [IC50]


ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct

Approved Use

Lithium is indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder.

Launch Date



[Lithium therapy in manic depressive diseases in old age].
The renal pathology in a case of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus.
1975 Jun
Lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: changes in plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II.
1975 Jun
[Side-effects of lithium therapy].
1975 Mar
Obsolete but dangerous antacid preparations.
1978 Jan
Organophosphate poisoning: modifications in acid base equilibrium and use of sodium bicarbonate as an aid in the treatment of toxicity in dogs.
1983 Feb
Calcification of superficial scalp veins secondary to intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride.
1983 Jul
Bupivacaine cardiotoxicity in a pregnant patient with mitral valve prolapse.
1983 Jun
[Effect of antacids on mineral metabolism].
1983 Mar
Experimental amitriptyline intoxication: electrophysiologic manifestations and management.
1984 Jan-Feb
Treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias resulting from amitriptyline toxicity in dogs.
1984 Nov
Urothelial injury to the rabbit bladder from various alkaline and acidic solutions used to dissolve kidney stones.
1986 Jul
Incidence of hypotension associated with epidural anesthesia using alkalinized and nonalkalinized lidocaine for cesarean section.
1987 Nov
The effect of pH buffering on reducing the pain associated with subcutaneous infiltration of bupivicaine.
1991 Mar
Alkalinization of local anesthesia with sodium bicarbonate--preferred method of local anesthesia.
1994 Jan
Pathophysiology and treatment of cocaine toxicity: implications for the heart and cardiovascular system.
1996 Dec
Suppression of herpes simplex virus infections with oral lithium carbonate--a possible antiviral activity.
1996 Nov-Dec
Therapy of Sjögren's syndrome. New aspects and future directions.
1998 Feb
Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.
1998 Mar
Acebutolol-induced ventricular tachycardia reversed with sodium bicarbonate.
Comparative effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride on reversing cocaine-induced changes in the electrocardiogram.
1999 Dec
pH-dependent cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity.
1999 Jul
The effects of sodium bicarbonate on thioridazine-induced cardiac dysfunction in the isolated perfused rat heart.
2001 Apr
Antidepressant-induced mania in bipolar patients: identification of risk factors.
2001 Apr
Ataxia from lithium toxicity successfully treated with high-dose buspirone: a single-case experimental design.
2001 Aug
Ménière's disease in childhood.
2001 Dec 1
Bupropion manic induction during euthymia, but not during depression.
2001 Jun
Renal tubular peptide catabolism in chronic vascular rejection.
2001 May-Jul
[A case of atropine-resistant bradycardia in a patient on long-term lithium medication].
2001 Nov
Mild to severe lithium-induced nephropathy models and urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in rats.
2001 Oct
Lithium-induced nephrotic syndrome in a young pediatric patient.
2002 Apr
Connection between lithium and muscular incoordination.
2002 Feb
Intracerebroventricular antisense to inositol monophosphatase-1 reduces enzyme activity but does not affect Li-sensitive behavior.
2002 Jan
Aminophylline aggravates long-term morphological and cognitive damages in status epilepticus in immature rats.
2002 Mar 22
Lithium induces NF-kappa B activation and interleukin-8 production in human intestinal epithelial cells.
2002 Mar 8
Hydroethidine detection of superoxide production during the lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.
2002 May
Lithium toxicity: a potential interaction with celecoxib.
2002 Sep-Oct
Left-sided splenorenal fusion with marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and concurrent lithium toxicity. A case report and review of the literature.
2003 Jan
Lithium-induced periodic alternating nystagmus.
2003 Jan 28
The prevention of pain from injection of rocuronium by magnesium sulphate, lignocaine, sodium bicarbonate and alfentanil.
2003 Jun
Acute renal failure due to phenazopyridine (Pyridium) overdose: case report and review of the literature.
2006 Nov
Comparison of usefulness of sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing an emergent coronary procedure.
2007 Sep 1
Sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline for protection against contrast nephropathy.
Mass casualties from acute inhalation of chlorine gas.
2009 Dec
Iatrogenic Flecainide toxicity.
2010 Dec
Randomized controlled trial: lisinopril reduces proteinuria, ammonia, and renal polypeptide tubular catabolism in patients with chronic allograft nephropathy.
2010 Jan 15
Hyper-alkalinization without hyper-hydration for the prevention of high-dose methotrexate acute nephrotoxicity in patients with osteosarcoma.
2010 Nov
High sensitivity of RBL-2H3 cells to cadmium and manganese: an implication of the role of ZIP8.
2011 Jul
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.
2015 Jul 25
Hexavalent chromium affects sperm motility by influencing protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of boar spermatozoa.
2016 Jan

Sample Use Guides

Optimal patient response to Lithium Carbonate usually can be established and maintained with 600 mg t.i.d. Optimal patient response to Lithium Oral Solution usually can be established and maintained with 10 mL (2 full teaspoons) (16 mEq of lithium) t.i.d. Such doses will normally produce an effective serum lithium level ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mEq/l. Dosage must be individualized according to serum levels and clinical response. Regular monitoring of the patient’s clinical state and of serum lithium levels is necessary. Serum levels should be determined twice per week during the acute phase, and until the serum level and clinical condition of the patient have been stabilized.
Route of Administration: Oral
Although lithium at a high concentration (10 mM) activated β-catenin in different types of neurons, β-catenin shifted to the nucleus at a therapeutically relevant concentration (1 mM) only in thalamic neurons, both in vivo and in vitro.
Substance Class Chemical
by admin
on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021
by admin
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Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021
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Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 05:31:34 UTC 2021
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