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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C6H5O7.3Li
Molecular Weight 209.923
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of LITHIUM CITRATE ANHYDROUS

SMILES

[Li+].[Li+].[Li+].OC(CC([O-])=O)(CC([O-])=O)C([O-])=O

InChI

InChIKey=WJSIUCDMWSDDCE-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI=1S/C6H8O7.3Li/c7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10;;;/h13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12);;;/q;3*+1/p-3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula Li
Molecular Weight 6.941
Charge 1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C6H5O7
Molecular Weight 189.0997
Charge -3
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment: Description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538681 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371914 | http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/3/lithium

Lithium is an alkali metal widely used in industry. Lithium salts are indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder. The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. The specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Lithium appears to preserve or increase the volume of brain structures involved in emotional regulation such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, possibly reflecting its neuroprotective effects. At a neuronal level, lithium reduces excitatory (dopamine and glutamate) but increases inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmission; however, these broad effects are underpinned by complex neurotransmitter systems that strive to achieve homeostasis by way of compensatory changes. For example, at an intracellular and molecular level, lithium targets second-messenger systems that further modulate neurotransmission. For instance, the effects of lithium on the adenyl cyclase and phospho-inositide pathways, as well as protein kinase C, may serve to dampen excessive excitatory neurotransmission. In addition to these many putative mechanisms, it has also been proposed that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are key to its therapeutic actions. In this regard, lithium has been shown to reduce the oxidative stress that occurs with multiple episodes of mania and depression. Further, it increases protective proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and B-cell lymphoma 2, and reduces apoptotic processes through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and autophagy.

Originator

Curator's Comment: The first lithium mineral petalite, LiAlSi4O10, was discovered on the Swedish island of Utö by the Brazilian, Jozé Bonifácio de Andralda e Silva in the 1790s. It was observed to give an intense crimson flame when thrown onto a fire. In 1817, Johan August Arfvedson of Stockholm analysed it and deduced it contained a previously unknown metal, which he called lithium. He realised this was a new alkali metal and a lighter version of sodium. However, unlike sodium he was not able to separate it by electrolysis. In 1821 William Brande obtained a tiny amount this way but not enough on which to make measurements. It was not until 1855 that the German chemist Robert Bunsen and the British chemist Augustus Matthiessen obtained it in bulk by the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
6.53 µM [IC50]
2.0 mM [Ki]
Target ID: O95861
Gene ID: 10380.0
Gene Symbol: BPNT1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
0.3 mM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
LITHIUM CARBONATE

Approved Use

Lithium is indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder.

Launch Date

-1.26316798E11
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
[Lithium gluconate in emotional disturbances (preliminary results; current orientation)].
1971 Oct 20
[Lithium gluconate: systematic and factorial analysis of 104 cases which have been studied for 2 and one-half to 3 years in patients regularly observed and showing periodic cyclothymia or dysthymia].
1974 Mar
Sinoatrial block during lithium treatment.
1975 Aug
The renal pathology in a case of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus.
1975 Jun
[Treatment of drug-resistant depressive states with lithium gluconate].
1977 Mar
[Cardiac electrophysiological effects of lithium gluconate in anesthetized dogs].
1978 Sep-Oct
Neurotoxicity with combined use of lithium and thioridazine.
1979 Mar
Alkalinization of local anesthesia with sodium bicarbonate--preferred method of local anesthesia.
1994 Jan
Effects of magnesium sulfate and lidocaine in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in experimental amitriptyline poisoning in the rat.
1994 Mar
Reversal of flecainide-induced ventricular arrhythmia by hypertonic sodium bicarbonate in dogs.
1995 May
Pathophysiology and treatment of cocaine toxicity: implications for the heart and cardiovascular system.
1996 Dec
Suppression of herpes simplex virus infections with oral lithium carbonate--a possible antiviral activity.
1996 Nov-Dec
Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.
1998 Mar
Correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage during status epilepticus induced by lithium and pilocarpine in immature and adult rats.
1999 Feb
Possible involvement of hypothyroidism as a cause of lithium-induced sinus node dysfunction.
1999 Jun
Clozapine-induced acute interstitial nephritis.
1999 Oct 2
[Between efficiency and toxicity: the case of a patient improved by lithium who developed iatrogenic nephropathy].
1999 Sep-Oct
Does 'rebound mania' occur after stopping carbamazepine? A pilot study.
2000
Patterns of status epilepticus-induced substance P expression during development.
2000
Seizure-induced neuronal necrosis: implications for programmed cell death mechanisms.
2000
Regulation of AQP6 mRNA and protein expression in rats in response to altered acid-base or water balance.
2000 Dec
[Hyperthyroidism and hypercalcemia associated with lithium treatment].
2000 Jan
beta-amyloid peptide-induced death of PC 12 cells and cerebellar granule cell neurons is inhibited by long-term lithium treatment.
2000 Mar 31
Influence of chronic barbiturate administration on sleep apnea after hypersomnia presentation: case study.
2000 Sep
Altered expression of renal AQPs and Na(+) transporters in rats with lithium-induced NDI.
2000 Sep
Changes in quantitatively assessed tremor during treatment of major depression with lithium augmented by paroxetine or amitriptyline.
2001 Apr
Ataxia from lithium toxicity successfully treated with high-dose buspirone: a single-case experimental design.
2001 Aug
Activation of hypothalamic neuronal nitric oxide synthase in lithium-induced diabetes insipidus rats.
2001 Feb
Treatment of bipolar depression with twice-weekly fluoxetine: management of antidepressant-induced mania.
2001 Jan
Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in older people.
2001 Jul
A historical cohort study of kidney damage in long-term lithium patients: continued surveillance needed.
2001 Jun
Molecular cloning of a novel isoform of diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase: a potential target of lithium therapy.
2001 Jun
[Nephrotic syndrome and lithium therapy].
2001 May 26
[A case of atropine-resistant bradycardia in a patient on long-term lithium medication].
2001 Nov
Mild to severe lithium-induced nephropathy models and urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in rats.
2001 Oct
[Reversible cardiomyopathy induced by psychotropic drugs: case report and literature overview].
2002 Dec
Intracerebroventricular antisense to inositol monophosphatase-1 reduces enzyme activity but does not affect Li-sensitive behavior.
2002 Jan
Case report and review of the perinatal implications of maternal lithium use.
2002 Jul
A case of Parkinsonism due to lithium intoxication: treatment with Pramipexole.
2002 May
Lithium gluconate in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a multicenter, randomised, double-blind study versus placebo.
2002 Nov-Dec
Risk factors for falls during treatment of late-life depression.
2002 Oct
Sexual side effects associated with valproate.
2002 Oct
Status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine in the immature rat does not change the long-term susceptibility to seizures.
2002 Sep
Left-sided splenorenal fusion with marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and concurrent lithium toxicity. A case report and review of the literature.
2003 Jan
Reverse pharmacological effect of loop diuretics and altered rBSC1 expression in rats with lithium nephropathy.
2003 Jan
[Lithium gluconate 8% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis].
2007 Apr
Anti-inflammatory effects of lithium gluconate on keratinocytes: a possible explanation for efficiency in seborrhoeic dermatitis.
2008 Jun
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.
2015 Jul 25
Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.
2017 Apr
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: a comprehensive review.
2019 Mar
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Optimal patient response to Lithium Carbonate usually can be established and maintained with 600 mg t.i.d. Optimal patient response to Lithium Oral Solution usually can be established and maintained with 10 mL (2 full teaspoons) (16 mEq of lithium) t.i.d. Such doses will normally produce an effective serum lithium level ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mEq/l. Dosage must be individualized according to serum levels and clinical response. Regular monitoring of the patient’s clinical state and of serum lithium levels is necessary. Serum levels should be determined twice per week during the acute phase, and until the serum level and clinical condition of the patient have been stabilized.
Route of Administration: Oral
Although lithium at a high concentration (10 mM) activated β-catenin in different types of neurons, β-catenin shifted to the nucleus at a therapeutically relevant concentration (1 mM) only in thalamic neurons, both in vivo and in vitro.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
Record UNII
3655633623
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
LITHIUM CITRATE ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
LITHIUM CITRATE [MI]
Common Name English
CITRIC ACID TRILITHIUM SALT
Common Name English
2-HYDROXY-1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID LITHIUM SALT (1:3)
Common Name English
Code System Code Type Description
FDA UNII
3655633623
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
919-16-4
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID70883185
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
213-045-8
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m6856
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
WIKIPEDIA
Lithium citrate
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
13520
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000181637
Created by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Sat Dec 16 01:39:47 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
SOLVATE->ANHYDROUS
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY