U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 11 - 20 of 4180 results

Fostamatinib is a pro-drug of a Syk inhibitor R406 initially developed by Rigel Pharmaceuticals, but then in-licensed by AstraZeneca. It reached phase III of clinical trials for such diseases as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, however, AstraZeneca decided not to proceed with regulatory filings and return the rights to the compound to Rigel Pharmaceuticals. In 2018 the drug was approved by the FDA for treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Fostamatinib is being developed for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (phase II), graft versus host disease (phase I) and ovarian cancer (phase I).
Rifamycin SV is a derivative of antibiotic rifamycin B (the natural fermentation product of S. mediterranei broths). The primary target of rifampicin on whole bacteria is the synthesis of RNA. Rifamycin belongs to the ansamycin class of antibacterial drugs and acts by inhibiting the beta subunit of the bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking one of the steps in DNA transcription. This results in inhibition of bacterial synthesis and consequently growth of bacteria. Rifampicin exhibits bactericidal activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on mycobacteria. Rifamycin SV MMX® (AEMCOLO), a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. AEMCOLO is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by non-invasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults.
Copanlisib, developed by Bayer, is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Copanlisib inhibits the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Copanlisib is currently under Phase II/III clinical trials for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Grazoprevir is a second generation NS3/4A protease inhibitor approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 infections in adult patients in combination with elbasvir (C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor) as the fixed-dose combination product Zepatier with or without ribavirin. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin. Elbasvir/grazoprevir was generally well tolerated. Thus, elbasvir/grazoprevir, with or without ribavirin, represents an effective new option for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection, including a number of difficult-to-treat populations.
Crisaborole is a topically administered, boron-containing, anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity and thereby suppresses the cytokine release of TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-23 and other cytokines. PDE4 is an an enzyme that converts the intracellular second messenger 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) into the active metabolite adenosine monophosphate (AMP). By inhibiting PDE4 and thus increasing levels of cAMP, crisaborole controls inflammation. The use of boron chemistry enabled synthesis of a low-molecular-weight compound (251 daltons), thereby facilitating effective penetration of crisaborole through human skin. Crisaborole is in clinical development for the topical treatment of psoriasis and being pursued for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis. Preliminary studies in children and adults demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles. Crisaborole may represent an anti-inflammatory option that safely minimizes the symptoms and severity of AD and that can be used for both acute and long-term management.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Targets:


Trabectedin (ET-743) is a marine alkaloid isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. Trabectedin was approved for the treatment of liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma (USA and Europe) and ovarian cancer (only in Europe). Trabectedin exerts its anti-cancer action by binding guanine residues in the minor groove of DNA. The binding prevents DNA from interacting with transcription factors and the reparation system and results in perturbation of the cell cycle and eventual cell death.
Osimertinib is an oral, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug developed by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Its use is indicated for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in cases where tumour EGFR expression is positive for the T790M mutation as detected by FDA-approved testing and which has progressed following therapy with a first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Approximately 10% of patients with NSCLC have a rapid and clinically effective response to EGFR-TKIs due to the presence of specific activating EGFR mutations within the tumour cells. More specifically, deletions around the LREA motif in exon 19 and exon 21 L858R point mutations are correlated with response to therapy. Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that binds to certain mutant forms of EGFR (T790M, L858R, and exon 19 deletion) that predominate in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumours following treatment with first-line EGFR-TKIs. As a third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, osimertinib is specific for the gate-keeper T790M mutation which increases ATP binding activity to EGFR and results in poor prognosis for late-stage disease. Furthermore, osimertinib has been shown to spare wild-type EGFR during therapy, thereby reducing non-specific binding and limiting toxicity. Osimertinib is marketed under the brand name Tagrisso.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Tipiracil is a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, that used for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Tipiracil is used in combination with trifluridine as Lonsurf. Trifluridine is incorporated into DNA via phosphorylation, ultimately inhibiting cell proliferation. Tipiracil increases systemic exposure of trifluridine when coadministered. Lonsurf has recently been approved for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who are refractory to or are not considered candidates for, current standard chemotherapy and biological therapy in the EU and USA and in unresectable advanced or recurrent CRC in Japan. The approved regimen of oral twice-daily Lonsurf significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival and was associated with a significantly higher disease control rate than placebo when added to best supportive care in the multinational, pivotal phase III trial (RECOURSE) and a phase II Japanese trial. Trifluridine/tipiracil was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, with adverse events generally being managed with dose reductions, temporary interruptions in treatment or administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The most common grade 3–4 adverse events (>10 %) were anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia.
Ixazomib (trade name Ninlaro) is a drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma in adults after at least one prior therapy, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. It is taken by mouth in form of capsules. Common side effects include diarrhea, constipation and low platelet count. Like the older bortezomib (which can only be given by injection), it acts as a proteasome inhibitor, has orphan drug status in the US and Europe. At therapeutic concentrations, ixazomib selectively and reversibly inhibits the protein proteasome subunit beta type-5 (PSMB5) with a dissociation half-life of 18 minutes. This mechanism is the same as of bortezomib, which has a much longer dissociation half-life of 110 minutes; the related drug carfilzomib, by contrast, blocks PSMB5 irreversibly. Proteasome subunits beta type-1 and type-2 are only inhibited at high concentrations reached in cell culture models. PSMB5 is part of the 20S proteasome complex and has enzymatic activity similar to chymotrypsin. It induces apoptosis, a type of programmed cell death, in various cancer cell lines. A synergistic effect of ixazomib and lenalidomide has been found in a large number of myeloma cell lines. The medication is taken orally as a prodrug, ixazomib citrate, which is a boronic ester; this ester rapidly hydrolyzes under physiological conditions to its biologically active form, ixazomib, a boronic acid. Absolute bioavailability is 58%, and highest blood plasma concentrations of ixazomib are reached after one hour. Plasma protein binding is 99%.
Flibanserin is the first drug to be approved for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women by the FDA in August 2015. It was originally developed as an antidepressant medication by Boehringer Ingelheim, but showed lack of efficacy in trials and was further developed as a hypoactive sexual disorder drug by Sprout Pharmaceuticals. Flibanserin's mechanism of action is attributed to its high affinity for 5-HTA1 and 5-HTA2 receptors, displaying agonist activity on 5-HTA1 and antagonist on 5-HTA2, resulting in lowering of serotonin in the brain as well as an effect on increasing norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters. Flibansetrin has high affinity for serotonin receptors in the brain: it acts as an agonist on 5-HT1A and an antagonist on 5-HT2A. In vivo, flibanserin binds equally to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. However, under higher levels of brain 5-HT (i.e., under stress), flibanserin may occupy 5-HT2A receptors in higher proportion than 5-HT(1A) receptors. It may also moderately antagonize D4 (dopamine) receptors and 5-HT2B and 5-HTB2C. Its action on neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to reduction in serotonin levels and increase in dopamine and norepinephrine levels, all of which may play part in reward processing. Flibanserin is sold under the trade name Addyi and indicated for the treatment of premenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as characterized by low sexual desire that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.

Showing 11 - 20 of 4180 results