U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 31 - 40 of 4180 results


Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

ERIBULIN MESYLATE (HALAVEN®) is a microtubule dynamics inhibitor. It is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B, a product isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. ERIBULIN MESYLATE (HALAVEN®) inhibits the growth phase of microtubules without affecting the shortening phase and sequesters tubulin into nonproductive aggregates. It exerts its effects via a tubulin-based antimitotic mechanism leading to G2/M cell-cycle block, disruption of mitotic spindles, and, ultimately, apoptotic cell death after the prolonged mitotic blockage. ERIBULIN MESYLATE (HALAVEN®) is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have previously received at least two chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of metastatic disease. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic liposarcoma who have received a prior anthracycline-containing regimen.
Artenimol (also known as dihydroqinghaosu, dihydroartemisinin or DHA) is the active metabolite of all artemisinin compounds (artemisinin, artesunate, artemether, etc.) and is also available as a drug used to treat malaria. The proposed mechanism of action of artemisinin involves cleavage of endoperoxide bridges by iron, producing free radicals (hypervalent iron-oxo species, epoxides, aldehydes, and dicarbonyl compounds) which damage biological macromolecules causing oxidative stress in the cells of the parasite. Malaria is caused by apicomplexans, primarily Plasmodium falciparum, which largely reside in red blood cells and itself contains iron-rich heme-groups (in the form of hemozoin). Recent mechanism research discovered that artemisinin targets a broad spectrum of proteins in the human cancer cell proteome through heme-activated radical alkylation. Dihydroartemisinin is used to treat malaria, generally as a combination drug with piperaquine. In a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, both dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine are very effective at treating malaria (high-quality evidence). However, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine cures slightly more patients than artemether-lumefantrine, and it also prevents further malaria infections for longer after treatment (high-quality evidence). Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine probably have similar side effects (moderate-quality evidence). The studies were all conducted in Africa. In studies of people living in Asia, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is as effective as artesunate plus mefloquine at treating malaria (moderate-quality evidence). Artesunate plus mefloquine probably causes more nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sleeplessness, and palpitations than dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (moderate-quality evidence).
Pralatrexate (PDX or 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin) is a folate analogue that is internalised by the reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC-1) protein, and polyglutamylated by the enzyme folylpolyglutamyl synthetase (FPGS), resulting in accumulation of the antifolate. Pralatrexate, a methotrexate analogue, is intended as an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme which catalyses the reduction of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. Inhibition of DHFR leads to a depletion of intracellular reduced folate stores, thereby leading to a disruption of DNA synthesis. Preclinical studies in vitro and in models of B-cell lymphomas, T-cell lymphomas and NSCLC indicated that pralatrexate exhibited antitumor activity that was superior to the activity of other antifolates. FOLOTYN (pralatrexate injection) is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Tolvaptan is a selective and competitive arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist. Vasopressin acts on the V2 receptors found in the walls of the vasculature and luminal membranes of renal collecting ducts. By blocking V2 receptors in the renal collecting ducts, aquaporins do not insert themselves into the walls thus preventing water absorption. This action ultimately results in an increase in urine volume, decrease urine osmolality, and increase electrolyte-free water clearance to reduce intravascular volume and an increase serum sodium levels. Tolvaptan is especially useful for heart failure patients as they have higher serum levels of vasopressin. Tolvaptan is used to treat low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) associated with various conditions like congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormones (SIADH). FDA approved on May 19, 2009. Tolvaptan is sold under the trade names Samsca and Jinarc.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Dapagliflozin (trade name Farxiga in the U.S. and Forxiga in the EU and Russia) is a drug of the gliflozin class, developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in partnership with AstraZeneca. Farxiga is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Icosapent is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families. EPA can be used for lowering elevated triglycerides in those who are hyperglyceridemic. In addition, EPA may play a therapeutic role in patients with cystic fibrosis by reducing disease severity and may play a similar role in type 2 diabetics in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Bendamustine, brand name Treanda, is a chemotherapeutic agent that displays a unique pattern of cytotoxicity compared with conventional alkylating agents. Treanda is indicated for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), in addition Trenda in phase III of clinical trial for the treatment patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that has progressed during or within six months of treatment with rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. Bendamustine is a bifunctional mechlorethamine derivative. Mechlorethamine and its derivatives dissociate into electrophilic alkyl groups. These groups form covalent bonds with electron-rich nucleophilic moieties. The bifunctional covalent linkage can lead to cell death via several pathways. The exact mechanism of action of bendamustine remains unknown. Molecular analyses have revealed that bendamustine differs from other alkylating agents in its mechanism of action. Differences have been observed about its effects on DNA repair and cell cycle progression. Moreover, bendamustine can induce cell death through both apoptotic and nonapoptotic pathways, thereby retaining activity even in cells without a functional apoptotic pathway. Bendamustine possesses the typical adverse reactions for the nitrogen mustards, and include nausea, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, constipation, loss of appetite, cough, headache, unintentional weight loss.
IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) is a radiopharmaceutical agent for gamma-scintigraphy. It is similar in structure to the antihypertensive drug guanethidine and to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE). IOBENGUANE is, therefore, largely subject to the same uptake and accumulation pathways as NE. It is taken up by the NE transporter in adrenergic nerve terminals and stored in the presynaptic storage vesicles. IOBENGUANE accumulates in adrenergically innervated tissues such as the adrenal medulla, salivary glands, heart, liver, spleen, and lungs as well as tumors derived from the neural crest. By labeling IOBENGUANE with the isotope iodine 123 (I-123), it is possible to obtain scintigraphic images of the organs and tissues in which the radiopharmaceutical accumulates. IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) is indicated for use in the detection of primary or metastatic pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma. It is also used for scintigraphic assessment of sympathetic innervation of the myocardium by measurement of the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of radioactivity uptake in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or class III heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%. Among these patients, IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) may be used to help identify patients with lower one and two-year mortality risks, as indicated by an H/M ratio ≥ 1.6.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Ixabepilone is an antineoplastic agent, epothilone and mitotic inhibitor that is FDA approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer resistant to treatment with an anthracycline and a taxane, or whose cancer is taxane resistant and for whom further anthracycline therapy is contraindicated. Ixabepilone binds directly to beta-tubulin subunits on microtubules, leading to suppression of microtubule dynamics. Ixabepilone suppresses the dynamic instability of alpha-beta-II and alpha-beta-III microtubules. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) are peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue/asthenia, myalgia/arthralgia, alopecia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis/mucositis, diarrhea, and musculoskeletal pain. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 may increase plasma concentrations of ixabepilone.
Nilotinib (AMN107, trade name Tasigna) is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of chronic phase and accelerated phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in adult patients resistant to or intolerant to prior therapy that included imatinib. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl kinase. Nilotinib binds to and stabilizes the inactive conformation of the kinase domain of Abl protein. In vitro, nilotinib inhibited Bcr-Abl mediated proliferation of murine leukemic cell lines and human cell lines derived from Ph+ CML patients. Under the conditions of the assays, nilotinib was able to overcome imatinib resistance resulting from Bcr-Abl kinase mutations, in 32 out of 33 mutations tested. In vivo, nilotinib reduced the tumor size in a murine Bcr-Abl xenograft model. Nilotinib inhibited the autophosphorylation of the following kinases at IC50 values as indicated: Bcr-Abl (20-60 nM), PDGFR (69 nM) and c-Kit (210 nM). Nilotinib is currently being trialed in people with Parkinson's disease, as it appears to be able to halt progression of the disease and even improve their symptoms. The drug also has a number of adverse effects typical of anti-cancer drugs: a headache, fatigue, gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation, muscle and joint pain, rash and other skin conditions, flu-like symptoms, and reduced blood cell count. Less typical side effects are those of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), various types of arrhythmia, and prolonged QT interval. Interaction of nilotinib with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 may alter its hepatic disposition and can lead to transporter mediated drug-drug interactions. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of OATP-1B1 transporter but not for OATP-1B3. Main metabolic pathways identified in healthy subjects are oxidation and hydroxylation. Nilotinib is the main circulating component in the serum. None of the metabolites contributes significantly to the pharmacological activity of nilotinib.