U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

    {{facet.count}}
    {{facet.count}}

Showing 21 - 30 of 4180 results

Cholic acid is a primary bile acid synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Endogenous bile acids including cholic acid enhance bile flow and provide the physiologic feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis. The mechanism of action of cholic acid has not been fully established; however, it is known that cholic acid and its conjugates are endogenous ligands of the nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). FXR regulates enzymes and transporters that are involved in bile acid synthesis and in the enterohepatic circulation to maintain bile acid homeostasis under normal physiologic conditions. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Cholbam (cholic acid) capsules, the first FDA approved treatment for pediatric and adult patients with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for patients with peroxisomal disorders (including Zellweger spectrum disorders).
Netupitant is an antiemitic drug approved by the FDA in October 2014 for use in combination with palonosetron for the prevention of acute and delayed vomiting and nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy including highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
Belinostat is a hydroxamate-type histone deacetylase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of relapsed or refractory peripheal T-cell lymphoma. The compound received orphan drug designation for the treatment of malignant thymomas. Acting on a histone deacetylase Belinostat causes the accumulation of acetylated histones and other proteins, inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis of some transformed cells. Belinostat targets HDAC enzymes, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cellular differentiation, and inhibiting angiogenesis. This agent may sensitize drug-resistant tumor cells to other antineoplastic agents, possibly through a mechanism involving the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase. PXD101 has been shown in preclinical studies to have the potential to treat a wide range of solid and hematologic malignancies either as a monotherapy or in combination with other active agents, and both an oral and intravenous formulation of the drug are being evaluated in clinical trials.
Cephalotaxine is an active metabolite of omacetaxine mepesuccinate also known as omacetaxine. In most patients the levels of cephalotaxine are undetectable. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is a first-in-class cephalotaxine demonstrating clinical activity in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Bedaquiline (trade name Sirturo, code names TMC207 and R207910) is a diarylquinoline anti-tuberculosis drug, which was discovered by a team led by Koen Andries at Janssen Pharmaceutica. When it was approved by the FDA on the 28th December 2012, it was the first new medicine to fight TB in more than forty years, and is specifically approved to treat multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Bedaquiline is a diarylquinoline antimycobacterial drug that inhibits the proton pump of mycobacterial ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) synthase, an enzyme that is essential for the generation of energy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacterial death occurs as a result of bedaquiline.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Carfilzomib is an epoxomicin derivate with potential antineoplastic activity. Kyprolis (carfilzomib's trade name) is a proteasome inhibitor that is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy as a single agent or in combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. Carfilzomib is made up of four modified peptides. It irreversibly and selectively binds to N-terminal threonine-containing active sites of the 20S proteasome, the proteolytic core particle within the 26S proteasome. This 20S core has 3 catalytic active sites: the chymotrypsin, trypsin, and caspase-like sites. Inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like site by carfilzomib (β5 and β5i subunits) is the most effective target in decreasing cellular proliferation, ultimately resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancerous cells. At higher doses, carfilzomib will inhibit the trypsin-and capase-like sites. Inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of polyubiquinated proteins, which may lead to cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth.
Azilsartan medoxomil (trade name Edarb) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) that lowers blood pressure by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a vasopressor hormone. It is indicated for the treatment of hypertension to lower blood pressure which reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. Azilsartan medoxomil may be used either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents such as chlorthalidone (CLD). As an ARB, azilsartan medoxomil selectively inhibits angiotensin II from binding to the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1). This receptor inhibition provides the antihypertensive activity of azilsartan medoxomil because it blocks the pressor effects of angiotensin II. Azilsartan medoxomil is a prodrug of azilsartan. It is hydrolyzed to the active moiety, azilsartan, in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during the absorption phase. Azilsartan medoxomil, in combination with the thiazide-like diuretic chlorthalidone, was more effective in lowering systolic BP than azilsartan plus HCTZ.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Clobazam belongs to the 1,5-benzodiazepine class of drugs with antiepileptic properties. It has been used to treat anxiety and epilepsy since 1970s. In the US clobazam was approved for marketing in October of 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It is also approved for adjunctive therapy for epilepsy in patients who have not responded to first-line drugs and in children who are refractory to first-line drugs. The mechanism of action for clobazam is not fully understood but is thought to involve what is known as potentiation of GABAergic neurotransmission resulting from binding at a benzodiazepine site at the GABA(A) receptor. Possible side effects: constipation, fever, drowsiness, sedation, ataxia, aggressive behavior, lethargy, drooling, and irritability. Other side effects include: urinary tract infection, pneumonia, cough, dysphagia, dysarthria, bronchitis, insomnia, fatigue, decreased appetite, and increased appetite.
Dienogest (Natazia) is a hybrid progestogen that combines properties of both the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and the progesterone derivatives. It is indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in women without organic pathology. Dienogest is also approved in Europe, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Japan for the treatment of endometriosis. It is lowers the risk of becoming pregnant primarily by suppressing ovulation. Other possible mechanisms may include cervical mucus changes that inhibit sperm penetration and endometrial changes that reduce the likelihood of implantation. Dienogest exhibits highly selective binding to the progesterone receptor. It has high progestational and significant antiandrogenic activity, but only moderate antigonadotrophic activity. The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials for Natazia are headache (including migraines), breast pain, menstrual disorders, nausea or vomiting, acne, mood changes and increased weight.
Cabazitaxel (JEVTANA®) is an antineoplastic agent belonging to the taxane class and is used to treat people with prostate cancer that has progressed despite treatment with docetaxel. It is prepared by semi-synthesis with a precursor extracted from yew needles (10-deacetylbaccatin III). Cabazitaxel (JEVTANA®) is a microtubule inhibitor. It binds to tubulin and promotes its assembly into microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting disassembly. This leads to the stabilization of microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitotic and interphase cellular functions. The cell is then unable to progress further into the cell cycle, being stalled at metaphase, thus triggering apoptosis of the cancer cell.