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Description
Curator's Comment:: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A

Vitamin A is important for growth and development as well as maintenance of the immune system and good vision. Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, which combines with the protein opsin to form rhodopsin. Together Vitamin A and Rhodopsin form the light-absorbing molecule necessary for both low-light (scotopic vision) and color vision. Vitamin A also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid (an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol) which is an important hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an ester, primarily retinyl palmitate, which is converted to retinol (chemically an alcohol) in the small intestine. The retinol form functions as a storage form of the vitamin, and can be converted to and from its visually active aldehyde form, retinal. Vitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of a proper functioning immune system. The precise mechanism of action of vitamin A differs based on the biological use case, and some mechanisms are better known than others. To facilitate vision Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina contributing to the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. While attached to opsin in rhodopsin 11-cis-retinal is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light which triggers the nerve impulse to the brain allowing for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the absence of light and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly. During epithelial differentiation the role of Vitamin A (as in other physiological processes) involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Evidence indicates that retinol is transported by retinol binding protein across the blood–brain barrier and blood–CSF barrier to the CNS

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: O95237
Gene ID: 9227
Gene Symbol: LRAT
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: Q96NR8
Gene ID: 145226
Gene Symbol: RDH12
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: Q92781
Gene ID: 5959
Gene Symbol: RDH5
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
Preventing
Preventing
Primary
AQUASOL A

Approved Use

Used to treat and prevent symptoms of vitamin A deficiency such as xerophthalmia and night blindness. Used as a dietary supplement to prevent vitamin A deficiency in patients with GI diseases (e.g., malabsorption syndromes) and those with abnormal storage and transport of vitamin A (e.g., abetalipoproteinemia, protein deficiency, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, fever, liver disease, cystic fibrosis with hepatic involvement).

Launch Date

-650937600000
Palliative
AQUASOL A

Approved Use

Children with severe measles have been found to have low serum concentrations of vitamin A; WHO and AAP recommend that vitamin A supplements be given to all children with acute measles, regardless of their country of residence.

Launch Date

-650937600000
Primary
Primary
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
[Review of acute hydrocephalus caused by administration of vitamin A in massive doses in nursing infants; based on 100 cases].
1957 Feb
[Renal tubular failure after treatment with high dose of vitamin A (author's transl)].
1976 Feb 6
Effect of avitaminosis A and hypervitaminosis A on urinary bladder carcinogenicity of N-(4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)formamide.
1976 Jul
Vitamin neurotoxicity.
1992 Spring
Zinc transporters in the rat mammary gland respond to marginal zinc and vitamin A intakes during lactation.
2002 Nov
Retinoids regulate the repairing process of the podocytes in puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic rats.
2003 Apr
PPARbeta regulates vitamin A metabolism-related gene expression in hepatic stellate cells undergoing activation.
2003 Feb
Impact of 'Mad Cow Disease' publicity on trends in meat and total vitamin A consumption in Geneva between 1993 and 2000.
2003 Jan
Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesian infants.
2003 Mar
Vitamin A deficiency leads to increased cell proliferation in olfactory epithelium of mature rats.
2003 Mar
Pharmacology of all-trans-retinoic acid in children with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
2003 May
Effects of supplementation with vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and zinc on immune function in a murine sensitization model.
2003 Nov-Dec
Vitamin A regulates proliferation and apoptosis of human T- and B-cells.
2004 Dec
Carotenoids and their metabolites are naturally occurring activators of gene expression via the pregnane X receptor.
2004 Dec
A palmitoylation switch mechanism in the regulation of the visual cycle.
2004 Jun 11
Use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique to monitor the vitamin A status of Nicaraguan schoolchildren 1 y after initiation of the Nicaraguan national program of sugar fortification with vitamin A.
2004 Nov
Age differences in vitamin A intake among Canadian Inuit.
2004 Nov-Dec
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on vitamin A metabolism in mice.
2005
Differential effects of vitamin A on fetal lung growth and diaphragmatic formation in nitrofen-induced rat model.
2005
Alcohol, vitamin A, and cancer.
2005 Apr
Brain tissue fragments in the amniotic fluid of rats with neural tube defect.
2005 Apr
What is the safe dose of vitamin A in children with measles?
2005 Apr
Fortification of maize meal improved the nutritional status of 1-3-year-old African children.
2005 Aug
Effects of prenatal vitamins A, E, and C on the hypoplastic hearts of fetal rats with diaphragmatic hernia.
2005 Aug
beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates cell differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
2005 Aug 15
Vitamin A status in mice affects the histone code of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in liver.
2005 Dec
Phospho-STAT5 accumulation in nuclear fractions from vitamin A-deficient rat liver.
2005 Jul 4
Effect of vitamin A content in cafeteria diet on the expression of nuclear receptors in rat subcutaneous adipose tissue.
2005 Jun
Vitamin a deficiency and anaemia in young children living in a malaria endemic district of western Kenya.
2005 Jun
Vitamin A deficiency induces prooxidant environment and inflammation in rat aorta.
2005 Jun
Extra-hepatic vitamin A concentrations in captive Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys fed excess vitamin A.
2005 Mar
Retinoid metabolism during development of liver cirrhosis.
2005 Nov 15
Vitamin A supplementation induces adipose tissue loss through apoptosis in lean but not in obese rats of the WNIN/Ob strain.
2005 Oct
Regulation of a highly specific retinoic acid-4-hydroxylase (CYP26A1) enzyme and all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism in human intestinal, liver, endothelial, and acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
2005 Oct
Comparison of indices of vitamin A status in children with chronic liver disease.
2005 Oct
Vitamin A regulation of BMP4 expression in the male germ line.
2005 Oct 1
Acyl coenzyme A dependent retinol esterification by acyl coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1.
2005 Oct 15
Retinol induces permeability transition and cytochrome c release from rat liver mitochondria.
2005 Oct 30
Expression of keratinocyte transglutaminase in cornea of vitamin A-deficient rats.
2005 Sep
Mutation of key residues of RPE65 abolishes its enzymatic role as isomerohydrolase in the visual cycle.
2005 Sep 20
Transmembrane protein GDE2 induces motor neuron differentiation in vivo.
2005 Sep 30
Hypervitaminosis A resulting in DNA aberration in fetal transgenic mice (Muta Mouse).
2005 Sep 5
Effects of nitrofen and vitamins A, C and E on maturation of cultured human H441 pneumocytes.
2006
Vitamin A improves Pax3 expression that is decreased in the heart of rats with experimental diaphragmatic hernia.
2006 Feb
The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A.
2006 Feb
Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins.
2006 Feb
Nonclassical action of retinoic acid on the activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.
2006 Feb
Retinoic acid regulates sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in mice.
2006 Feb 21
RPE65 is an iron(II)-dependent isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle.
2006 Feb 3
Vitamin A inhibits pancreatic stellate cell activation: implications for treatment of pancreatic fibrosis.
2006 Jan
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Retinol should be administered orally or by intramuscular injection. For skin conditions retinol is applied topically.
Route of Administration: Other
Kinetic analyses of retinol esterification by lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were carried out by measuring the rates of 3H-all-trans-retinyl ester formation under conditions where 3H-all-trans-retinol was varied at saturating lecithin concentrations. LRAT catalyzes esterification of retinol with Km of 0.94 uM.
Substance Class Mixture
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
Record UNII
81G40H8B0T
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
VITAMIN A
FCC   GREEN BOOK   MART.   ORANGE BOOK   USP   VANDF  
Common Name English
LUTAVIT A
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [VANDF]
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
VITAMIN A (NATURAL) [VANDF]
Common Name English
PROVITAMIN A
Common Name English
CHOCOLA A
Common Name English
VITAMIN A, UNSPECIFIED FORM
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
VIATMIN A [VANDF]
Common Name English
VITAMIN A CONCENTRATE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [FCC]
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
HYDROVIT A
Common Name English
ROVIMIX A 500
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [USP]
Common Name English
MICROVIT A
Common Name English
VITAMIN A [MART.]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000006269
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 862.1805
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000006269
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC V04CB01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
DSLD 3315 (Number of products:1063)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000006269
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000006269
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000006269
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 101.78
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 546216
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 184.1930
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QV04CB01
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DSLD 2698 (Number of products:2377)
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LIVERTOX 1033
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NDF-RT N0000175950
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
DSLD 201 (Number of products:4964)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
234-328-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00162
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB16102MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Vitamin A
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL986
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
11103-57-4
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
11246
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
WIKIPEDIA
VITAMIN A
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB05791MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C938
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D014801
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
81G40H8B0T
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
VITAMIN A
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:08:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A yellow to brownish yellow, oily liquid.Solubility: Practically insoluble in water; soluble or partly soluble in dehydrated ethanol R; miscible with organic solvents.Category: Vitamin.Storage: The oily form of Retinol concentrate should be kept in a well-closed and well-filled container, protected from light. Oncethe container has been opened its contents should be used as soon as possible; any part of the contents not used at once shouldbe protected by an atmosphere of inert gas.Labelling: The designation on the container should state the name of the retinol ester or esters, and their quantities expressed asthe content of vitamin A in International Units (IU) per gram, whether any stabilizing agents are added and their quantities, as wellas the method of restoring the solution if partial crystallization has occurred.Additional information: Even in the absence of light the oily form of Retinol concentrate is gradually degraded on exposure to ahumid atmosphere, the decomposition being faster at higher temperatures.Partial crystallization may occur in concentrated solutions and upon refrigeration.
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ACTIVE MOIETY
Definition References