U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C6H8O6
Molecular Weight 176.1241
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ASCORBIC ACID

SMILES

[H][C@@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[C@@H](O)CO

InChI

InChIKey=CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C6H8O6
Molecular Weight 176.1241
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin. It occurs as a white or slightly yellow crystal or powder with a slight acidic taste. Ascorbic acid is an electron donor, and this property accounts for all its known functions. As an electron donor, ascorbic acid is a potent water-soluble antioxidant in humans. Ascorbic acid acts as an antioxidant under physiologic conditions exhibiting a cross over role as a pro-oxidant in pathological conditions. Oxidized ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) directly inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta (IKKbeta) and IKKalpha enzymatic activity in vitro, whereas ascorbic acid did not have this effect. These findings define a function for vitamin C in signal transduction other than as an antioxidant and mechanistically illuminate how vitamin C down-modulates NF-kappaB signaling. Vitamin C is recommended for the prevention and treatment of scurvy. Its parenteral administration is desirable for patients with an acute deficiency or for those whose absorption of orally ingested ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is uncertain. Symptoms of mild deficiency may include faulty bone and tooth development, gingivitis, bleeding gums, and loosened teeth. Febrile states, chronic illness, and infection (pneumonia, whooping cough, tuberculosis, diphtheria, sinusitis, rheumatic fever, etc.) increase the need for ascorbic acid (vitamin c). Hemovascular disorders, burns, delayed fracture and wound healing are indications for an increase in the daily intake.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment: Ascorbic acid readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. Neurodegenerative diseases typically involve high levels of oxidative stress and thus ascorbate has been posited to have potential therapeutic roles against ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.

Originator

Curator's Comment: In 1928, Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated a substance from adrenal glands that he called 'hexuronic acid'. Four years later, Charles Glen King isolated vitamin C in his laboratory and concluded that it was the same as 'hexuronic acid'. Norman Haworth deduced the chemical structure of vitamin C in 1933.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
Vitamin C

Approved Use

Vitamin C is recommended for the prevention and treatment of scurvy. Its parenteral administration is desirable for patients with an acute deficiency or for those whose absorption of orally ingested ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is uncertain. Symptoms of mild deficiency may include faulty bone and tooth development, gingivitis, bleeding gums, and loosened teeth. Febrile states, chronic illness, and infection (pneumonia, whooping cough, tuberculosis, diphtheria, sinusitis, rheumatic fever, etc.) increase the need for ascorbic acid (vitamin c) . Hemovascular disorders, burns, delayed fracture and wound healing are indications for an increase in the daily intake
Preventing
Vitamin C

Approved Use

Vitamin C is recommended for the prevention and treatment of scurvy. Its parenteral administration is desirable for patients with an acute deficiency or for those whose absorption of orally ingested ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is uncertain. Symptoms of mild deficiency may include faulty bone and tooth development, gingivitis, bleeding gums, and loosened teeth. Febrile states, chronic illness, and infection (pneumonia, whooping cough, tuberculosis, diphtheria, sinusitis, rheumatic fever, etc.) increase the need for ascorbic acid (vitamin c) . Hemovascular disorders, burns, delayed fracture and wound healing are indications for an increase in the daily intake
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
33 mM
50 g/m² 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 50 g/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ASCORBIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
124 mM × h
50 g/m² 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 50 g/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ASCORBIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
1.8 h
50 g/m² 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
dose: 50 g/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
ASCORBIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
15 mg/kg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Studied dose
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p.541
unhealthy, ADULT
n = 42
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Age Group: ADULT
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 42
Sources: Page: p.541
1.5 g/kg 3 times / week multiple, intravenous
Dose: 1.5 g/kg, 3 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 1.5 g/kg, 3 times / week
Sources: Page: p.414
unhealthy, ADULT
n = 15
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Non-small cell lung cancer
Age Group: ADULT
Sex: M+F
Food Status: FASTED
Population Size: 15
Sources: Page: p.414
Other AEs: Diarrhea...
Other AEs:
Diarrhea (grade 3, 6.7%)
Sources: Page: p.414
110 g/m2 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 110 g/m2, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 110 g/m2, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p.143
unhealthy, ADULT
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cancer
Age Group: ADULT
Sex: M+F
Food Status: UNKNOWN
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.143
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Diarrhea grade 3, 6.7%
1.5 g/kg 3 times / week multiple, intravenous
Dose: 1.5 g/kg, 3 times / week
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 1.5 g/kg, 3 times / week
Sources: Page: p.414
unhealthy, ADULT
n = 15
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Non-small cell lung cancer
Age Group: ADULT
Sex: M+F
Food Status: FASTED
Population Size: 15
Sources: Page: p.414
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer
Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
moderate
yes
Sourcing

Sourcing

Vendor/AggregatorIDURL
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Quinine blindness.
1992 Dec
Mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and the effect of antioxidant vitamins.
2002
Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on arsenic-induced oxidative stress.
2002 Dec
Decreased expression of the vitamin C transporter SVCT1 by ascorbic acid in a human intestinal epithelial cell line.
2002 Feb
Effect of antioxidants (vitamin C, E and turmeric extract) on methimazole induced hypothyroidism in rats.
2002 Jun
Antiviral effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on human rhinoviruses.
2002 Jun
Ascorbic-acid transporter Slc23a1 is essential for vitamin C transport into the brain and for perinatal survival.
2002 May
Activation of Rac1 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in response to arsenic trioxide.
2002 Nov 22
Search of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs.
2002 Nov-Dec
Metalloenzyme-like activity of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid. Cu-dependent catalytic conversion of dopamine, cholesterol, and biological reducing agents to neurotoxic H(2)O(2).
2002 Oct 25
Effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative DNA damage in an experimental model of lead-induced hypertension.
2003
Ascorbic acid enhances differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac myocytes.
2003 Apr 15
L-ascorbic acid stimulates expression of smooth muscle-specific markers in smooth muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo.
2003 Dec
Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes.
2003 Dec 12
Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention.
2003 Feb
Ascorbic acid induces collagenase-1 in human periodontal ligament cells but not in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells: potential association between collagenase expression and changes in alkaline phosphatase phenotype.
2003 Jan
Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as potent modulators on arsenic induced toxicity in mitochondria.
2003 Jul
Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in cells of MOLT-4 and its daunorubicin-resistant cell line via depletion of intracellular glutathione, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3.
2003 Jul
Protective action of CLA against oxidative inactivation of paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant enzyme.
2003 Jun
Lead-induced downregulation of soluble guanylate cyclase in isolated rat aortic segments mediated by reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2.
2003 Jun
Bisphenol A induces reactive oxygen species generation in the liver of male rats.
2003 Jun 30
Modulation of TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression, NO and H2O2 production by alginate, allicin and ascorbic acid in human endothelial cells.
2003 Mar
Up-regulation and polarized expression of the sodium-ascorbic acid transporter SVCT1 in post-confluent differentiated CaCo-2 cells.
2003 Mar 14
Apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by chromium(VI/V) is through ROS-mediated activation of Src-family kinases and caspase-3.
2003 Nov 1
A biodegradable polyurethane-ascorbic acid scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
2003 Nov 1
Effects of supplementation with vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and zinc on immune function in a murine sensitization model.
2003 Nov-Dec
Toluene diisocyanate exposure induces laryngo-tracheal eosinophilia, which can be ameliorated by supplementation with antioxidant vitamins in guinea pigs.
2003 Oct
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) with induced adipocyte differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) involves tyrosine kinase c-Src.
2003 Oct 1
Beneficial effect of oleoylated lipids on paraoxonase 1: protection against oxidative inactivation and stabilization.
2003 Oct 15
Lutein interacts with ascorbic acid more frequently than with alpha-tocopherol to alter biomarkers of oxidative stress in female zucker obese rats.
2003 Sep
Preferential inhibition of paraoxonase activity of human paraoxonase 1 by negatively charged lipids.
2004 Dec
Cell cycle arrest and autoschizis in a human bladder carcinoma cell line following Vitamin C and Vitamin K3 treatment.
2004 Jan 15
Norepinephrine induces apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through a reactive oxygen species-TNF alpha-caspase signaling pathway.
2004 Jun 1
Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression.
2004 Mar 15
Involvement of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked ceruloplasmin in the copper/zinc-nitric oxide-dependent degradation of glypican-1 heparan sulfate in rat C6 glioma cells.
2004 Mar 26
Copper ions and hypochlorite are mainly responsible for oxidative inactivation of paraoxon-hydrolyzing activity in human high density lipoprotein.
2004 Mar 7
Vitamin C controls the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel.
2004 Mar 9
Does supplemental vitamin C increase cardiovascular disease risk in women with diabetes?
2004 Nov
Cytoprotection by bcl-2 gene transfer against ischemic liver injuries together with repressed lipid peroxidation and increased ascorbic acid in livers and serum.
2004 Nov 15
Changes of gene expression profiles during neuronal differentiation of central nervous system precursors treated with ascorbic acid.
2004 Oct 1
Effects of vitamin C and aspirin in ischemic stroke-related lipid peroxidation: results of the AVASAS (Aspirin Versus Ascorbic acid plus Aspirin in Stroke) Study.
2005
Anti-angiogenesis efficacy of the garlic ingredient alliin and antioxidants: role of nitric oxide and p53.
2005
Effects of prenatal vitamins A, E, and C on the hypoplastic hearts of fetal rats with diaphragmatic hernia.
2005 Aug
Relationship of bone morphogenetic protein expression during osteoblast differentiation to wild type p53.
2005 Nov
Megaloblastic anaemia: response to Amples A and B (folic acid, vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin), niacin and vitamin C)--a case report.
2005 Oct-Dec
Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats.
2006 Feb
Morphology and DNA degeneration during autoschizic cell death in bladder carcinoma T24 cells induced by ascorbate and menadione treatment.
2006 Jan
Combined antioxidant (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) supplementation increases the levels of lung retinoic acid and inhibits the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the ferret lung cancer model.
2006 Jul
Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid.
2006 May
Impact of diabetes mellitus on the relationships between iron-, inflammatory- and oxidative stress status.
2006 Nov-Dec
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is usually administered orally. When oral administration is not feasible or when malabsorption is suspected, the drug may be administered IM, IV, or subcutaneously. When given parenterally, utilization of the vitamin reportedly is best after IM administration and that is the preferred parenteral route. For intravenous injection, dilution into a large volume parenteral such as Normal Saline, Water for Injection, or Glucose is recommended to minimize the adverse reactions associated with intravenous injection. The average protective dose of vitamin C for adults is 70 to 150 mg daily. In the presence of scurvy, doses of 300 mg to 1 g daily are recommended. However, as much as 6 g has been administered parenterally to normal adults without evidence of toxicity. To enhance wound healing, doses of 300 to 500 mg daily for a week or ten days both preoperatively and postoperatively are generally considered adequate, although considerably larger amounts have been recommended. In the treatment of burns, doses are governed by the extent of tissue injury. For severe burns, daily doses of 1 to 2 g are recommended. In other conditions in which the need for vitamin C is increased, three to five times the daily optimum allowances appear to be adequate. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever the solution and container permit.
Route of Administration: Other
cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) with 250 µM of L-ascorbic acid phosphate (AA) treatment for 10 d had better rejuvenation in chondrogenic capacity if the deposited cells were from passage 2 rather than passage 5, despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. In the dose regimen study, we found that dECMs deposited by varied concentrations of AA yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity despite lower expression levels of stem cell related surface markers. Compared to cells expanded on tissue culture polystyrene, those on dECM exhibited greater chondrogenic potential, particularly for the dECMs with 50 µM and 250 µM of AA treatment. With the supplementation of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), an inhibitor targeting procollagen synthesis, the dECM with 50 µM of AA treatment exhibited a dramatic decrease in the rejuvenation effect of expanded cell chondrogenic potential at both mRNA and protein levels despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
Record UNII
PQ6CK8PD0R
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
ASCORBIC ACID
EP   FCC   FHFI   HSDB   II   INCI   INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
INN   INCI  
Official Name English
Ascorbic acid [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ASCORBICUM ACIDUM
Common Name English
ASCORBATE
Common Name English
E-300
Code English
3-KETO-L-GULOFURANOLACTONE
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
ASCORBICAP
Brand Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [JAN]
Common Name English
ASCOLTIN
Brand Name English
L-ASCORBIC ACID
Common Name English
VITAMIN C [VANDF]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [MI]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID, L-
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [HSDB]
Common Name English
NSC-218455
Code English
ACIDUM ASCORBICUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
INS-300
Code English
ASCORBIC ACID [FCC]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
INS NO.300
Code English
ASCORBIC ACID [INCI]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [FHFI]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [II]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [MART.]
Common Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [USP-RS]
Common Name English
L-ASCORBATE
Common Name English
2,3-DEHYDRO-L-THREO-HEXONO-1,4-LACTONE
Common Name English
VITAMIN C
VANDF  
Systematic Name English
ASCORBIC ACID [VANDF]
Common Name English
FEMA NO. 2109
Code English
NSC-33832
Code English
ASCORBIC ACID [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
(5R)-5-((1S)-1,2-DIHYDROXYETHYL)-3,4-DIHYDROXYFURAN-2(5H)-ONE
Systematic Name English
ASCOR
Brand Name English
VITAMIN C (AS ASCORBIC ACID)
Common Name English
ascorbic acid [INN]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 54351-2
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LOINC 34246-9
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WHO-ATC S01XA15
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WHO-VATC QG01AD03
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LOINC 1905-9
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LOINC 54350-4
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WHO-ATC G01AD03
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DSLD 10 (Number of products:9521)
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LOINC 12482-6
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LOINC 14622-5
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LOINC 56779-2
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LOINC 1902-6
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WHO-ATC A11GA01
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NCI_THESAURUS C275
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DSLD 3135 (Number of products:3731)
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WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 27
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NDF-RT N0000193618
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JECFA EVALUATION INS-300
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 280909
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LOINC 1903-4
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DSLD 3428 (Number of products:24)
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EU-Orphan Drug EU/3/17/1832
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CFR 21 CFR 862.1095
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WHO-ATC A11GB01
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DSLD 2644 (Number of products:145)
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 678719
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NCI_THESAURUS C68507
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WHO-VATC QA11GB01
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 645618
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LOINC 16408-7
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LOINC 15033-4
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WHO-VATC QS01XA15
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 243707
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CFR 21 CFR 101.78
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LOINC 6686-0
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CFR 21 CFR 310.727
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DSLD 2886 (Number of products:101)
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DSLD 3376 (Number of products:376)
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LOINC 59398-8
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LIVERTOX NBK548448
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CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-300
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LOINC 34248-5
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LOINC 54385-0
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LOINC 34247-7
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WHO-VATC QA11GA01
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LOINC 1904-2
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Code System Code Type Description
INN
372
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PRIMARY
FDA UNII
PQ6CK8PD0R
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PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-066-2
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PRIMARY
CAS
50-81-7
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
29073
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PRIMARY
DAILYMED
PQ6CK8PD0R
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB05579MIG
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PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID5020106
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB127188
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PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000086036
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PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
VITAMIN C
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PRIMARY
HSDB
818
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
176783
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PRIMARY
MESH
D001205
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PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00126
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PRIMARY
GRAS Notification (GRN No.)
769
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PRIMARY
NSC
218455
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PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL196
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PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m2089
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PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
1151
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PRIMARY RxNorm
LACTMED
Vitamin C
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C285
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
ASCORBIC ACID
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
PRIMARY Description: Colourless crystals or a white or almost white, crystalline powder; odourless or almost odourless. Solubility: Freely soluble in water; soluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS; practically insoluble in ether R. Category: Antiscorbutic. Storage: Ascorbic acid should be kept in a tightly closed, non-metallic container, protected from light. Additional information: Ascorbic acid in solution deteriorates rapidly in contact with air; it has an acid taste. Even in the absenceof light, Ascorbic acid is gradually degraded on exposure to a humid atmosphere, the decomposition being faster at higher temperatures. Definition: Ascorbic acid contains not less than 99.0% and not more than 100.5% of C6H8O6.
RXCUI
1370460
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
ALTERNATIVE
PUBCHEM
54670067
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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RS_ITEM_NUM
1043003
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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NSC
33832
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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CHEBI
38290
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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DRUG CENTRAL
4072
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:21:10 GMT 2023
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Related Record Type Details
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
ASSAY (TITRATION)
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
ENANTIOMER -> ENANTIOMER
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) - 89.2 mg (107%)
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
IMPURITY -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
http://apps.who.int/phint/pdf/b/Jb.6.1.35.pdf