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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C9H11NO4
Molecular Weight 197.1879
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of LEVODOPA

SMILES

N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O

InChI

InChIKey=WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C9H11NO4
Molecular Weight 197.1879
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Description

Levodopa (L-DOPA) was first isolated from seedlings of Vicia faba by Marcus Guggenheim in 1913. Levodopa, a dopamine precursor, is an effective and well-tolerated dopamine replacement agent used to treat Parkinson's disease. Oral levodopa has been widely used for over 40 years, often in combination with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, which reduces many treatment complications, extending its half-life and increasing levodopa availability to the brain. Entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, can also be used to improve the bioavailability of levodopa, especially when used in conjunction with a carbidopa.

CNS Activity

Originator

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Stalevo
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The effects of combining carbidopa with levodopa for Parkinson's disease.
1975 Dec
Levodopa-induced myoclonus.
1975 May
[Effects and side effects of levodopa in parkinsonism - results of a collaborative study. (4) Dyskinesia caused by levodopa].
1976 Dec
A unified dyskinesias rating scale for L-dopa-induced dyskinesias?
1999
A wide variety of mutations in the parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe. French Parkinson's Disease Genetics Study Group and the European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease.
1999 Apr
Comparative effects of unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.
1999 Aug 11
[A case of primary brain-stem injury recovered from persistent vegetative state after L-dopa administration].
1999 Dec
Striatal fosB expression is causally linked with l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements and the associated upregulation of striatal prodynorphin mRNA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
1999 Dec
Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease: results of a randomized, blinded pilot study.
1999 Dec
Renal effects of L-DOPA in heart failure.
1999 Jun
Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells.
1999 Jun 1
Internal globus pallidus discharge is nearly suppressed during levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
1999 Nov
Functional mapping of the human globus pallidus: contrasting effect of stimulation in the internal and external pallidum in Parkinson's disease.
2000
[Amantadine for the treatment of levodopa dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease].
2000
Effects of oligonucleotide antisense to dopamine D(1A) receptor messenger RNA in a rodent model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
2000
Bilateral subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease by using three-dimensional stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological guidance.
2000 Apr
Evidence of functional somatotopy in GPi from results of pallidotomy.
2000 Dec
Effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.
2000 Dec 26
Idazoxan is ineffective for levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.
2000 Mar
Relationship among nigrostriatal denervation, parkinsonism, and dyskinesias in the MPTP primate model.
2000 May
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: is sensitization reversible?
2000 May
[Treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].
2000 Oct
Expression of metallothionein-III mRNA and its regulation by levodopa in the basal ganglia of hemi-parkinsonian rats.
2000 Oct 20
The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier.
2000 Oct 6
Workshop IV: drug treatment guidelines for the long-term management of Parkinson's disease.
2000 Sep
Beneficial effects of amantadine on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.
2000 Sep
Adverse drug reactions to selegiline: a review of the French pharmacovigilance database.
2000 Sep-Oct
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of levodopa with and without tolcapone in patients with Parkinson's disease.
2001
Inhibition of potato polyphenol oxidase by anions and activity in various carboxylate buffers (pH 4.8) at constant ionic strength.
2001
Selective dopaminergic vulnerability: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde targets mitochondria.
2001 Apr 15
Dimeric L-dopa derivatives as potential prodrugs.
2001 Apr 23
Molecular mechanisms controlling the rate and specificity of catechol O-methylation by human soluble catechol O-methyltransferase.
2001 Feb
Enhanced abilities of highly swollen chitosan beads for color removal and tyrosinase immobilization.
2001 Jan 29
Biogenic aldehyde(s) derived from the action of monoamine oxidase may mediate the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.
2001 Jan 30
Effects of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on alpha2-adrenoceptors which regulate the synthesis and release of noradrenaline in the rat brain.
2001 Mar
Speech dysfluency exacerbated by levodopa in Parkinson's disease.
2001 May
Intravenous amantadine improves levadopa-induced dyskinesias: an acute double-blind placebo-controlled study.
2001 May
Biperiden enhances L-DOPA methyl ester and dopamine D(l) receptor agonist SKF-82958 but antagonizes D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist rotigotine antihemiparkinsonian actions.
2008 Dec 3
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is eight tablets (Stalevo 50, containing 12.5 mg of carbidopa, 50 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone; Stalevo 75, containing 18.75 mg of carbidopa, 75 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone; Stalevo 100, containing 25 mg of carbidopa, 100 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone; Stalevo 125, containing 31.25 mg of carbidopa, 125 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone; Stalevo 150, containing 37.5 mg of carbidopa, 150 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone; Stalevo 200, containing 50 mg of carbidopa, 200 mg of levodopa and 200 mg of entacapone). The optimum daily dosage must be determined by careful titration in each patient.
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
Low dose (<30 uM) Levodopa protects PC12 cells against oxidative stress which might be related to the up-regulation of CD39 and pCREB expression.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
Edited
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
Record UNII
46627O600J
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
LEVODOPA
EMA EPAR   EP   HSDB   INN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
INN   USAN  
Official Name English
LEVODOPA [JAN]
Common Name English
RYTARY COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Brand Name English
CARBILEV COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [INN]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF SINEMET
Common Name English
V-1512
Code English
LEVODOPA [USP]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
CORBILTA COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA [EMA EPAR]
Common Name English
L-DOPA
Systematic Name English
LEVODOPA [USP-RS]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF DUOPA
Brand Name English
BENDOPA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF STALEVO
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA [USAN]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF DOPASNAP
Common Name English
LEVODOPA/CARBIDOPA/ENTACAPONE ORION COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF CORBILTA
Brand Name English
STALEVO COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF PARCOPA
Common Name English
LARODOPA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF LEVODOPA/CARBIDOPA/ENTACAPONE ORION
Brand Name English
IPX203 COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
DOPAR
Brand Name English
DUOPA COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Brand Name English
PARCOPA COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [EP]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [HSDB]
Common Name English
IPX-203 COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [MI]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF CARBILEV
Common Name English
SINEMET COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE
Systematic Name English
NSC-118381
Code English
(-)-3-(3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-L-ALANINE
Systematic Name English
LEVODOPUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
LEVODOPA COMPONENT OF RYTARY
Brand Name English
L-TYROSINE, 3-HYDROXY-
Systematic Name English
DOPASNAP COMPONENT LEVODOPA
Common Name English
DOPA, L-
Systematic Name English
CVT-301
Common Name English
LEVODOPA [MART.]
Common Name English
INBRIJA
Brand Name English
LEVODOPA [VANDF]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-VATC QN04BA03
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 09 (LEV/CAR)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS CORBILTA (AUTHORIZED: PARKINSON DISEASE)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EU-Orphan Drug EU/3/01/035
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS STALEVO (AUTHORIZED: PARKINSON DISEASE)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-ATC N04BA01
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS CORBILTA (AUTHORIZED: NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-VATC QN04BA02
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-ATC N04BA03
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-VATC QN04BA01
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
NDF-RT N0000193220
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
LIVERTOX 552
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 129499
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
NDF-RT N0000175754
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
WHO-ATC N04BA02
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
NCI_THESAURUS C66884
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
NDF-RT N0000175755
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS LEVODOPA/CARBIDOPA/ENTACAPONE ORION (AUTHORIZED: PARKINSON DISEASE)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS CORBILTA (AUTHORIZED: NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
Code System Code Type Description
WIKIPEDIA
L-DOPA
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
LEVODOPA
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Description: A white or almost white, crystalline powder; odourless. Solubility: Soluble in 300 parts of water; practically insoluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS and ether R. Category: Antiparkinsonism drug. Storage: Levodopa should be kept in a tightly closed container.Definition: Levodopa contains not less than 98.5% and not more than 101.0% of C9H11NO4, calculated with reference to the dried substance.
MESH
D007980
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C611
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08468MIG
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
59-92-7
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1009
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
HSDB
59-92-7
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
IUPHAR
3639
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M6786
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Merck Index
INN
2651
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-445-2
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
LactMed
59-92-7
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
CAS
59-92-7
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01235
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
RXCUI
6375
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:45:45 UTC 2019
PRIMARY RxNorm
Related Record Type Details
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (HPLC)
USP
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (TITRATION)
EP
TARGET -> AGONIST
Related Record Type Details
PRODRUG -> METABOLITE ACTIVE
PRODRUG -> METABOLITE ACTIVE
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PRODRUG
METABOLITE -> PARENT
by DOPA decarboxylase
METABOLITE -> PARENT
When decarboxylation of levodopa is prevented by carbidopa, COMT becomes the major metabolizing enzyme for levodopa, catalyzing its metabolism to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine (3-OMD).
Related Record Type Details
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
PARENT -> IMPURITY
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
For the calculation of contents, multiply the peak areas by 2.2
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY