U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C7H8N4O2
Molecular Weight 180.1643
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of THEOBROMINE

SMILES

Cn1cnc2c1c(nc(=O)n2C)O

InChI

InChIKey=YAPQBXQYLJRXSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)9-7(13)11(5)2/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,12,13)

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Theobromine is the primary alkaloid present in the cocoa and chocolate. Theobromine is found in the shells and beans of the cacao plant and it is extracted from the husks of the bean and used for the synthesis of caffeine. Theobromine is an adenosine A1 and A2a receptor antagonist. Thesodate is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension. The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by theobromine are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include anxiety, restlessness, tremors, sleeplessness, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite. Theobromine is currently not in use as a medicinal drug.

Originator

Sources: DOI: 10.1002/jlac.18420410117

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P30543
Gene ID: 25369.0
Gene Symbol: Adora2a
Target Organism: Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
250.0 µM [IC50]
120.0 µM [Ki]
Target ID: P05177
Gene ID: 1544.0
Gene Symbol: CYP1A2
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: P05181
Gene ID: 1571.0
Gene Symbol: CYP2E1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Thesodate

Approved Use

Theobromine was used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension.
Palliative
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Primary
Thesodate

Approved Use

Theobromine used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
8.38 μg/mL
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
92 μg × h/mL
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
13351 mg × min/L
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
15.7 h
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.23 h
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
88%
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer


Drug as victim

Drug as victim

Tox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1.
1992 Apr
Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.
2001
Continuous measurement of caffeine and two metabolites in blood and skeletal muscle of unrestrained adult horses by semi-automated in vivo microdialysis.
2001 Dec
Effect of methylxanthine derivatives on doxorubicin transport and antitumor activity.
2001 Dec
Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.
2001 Dec 7
Effect of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor stimulation on hypoxia-induced convulsions in adult mice.
2001 Jan-Feb
A TLC visualisation reagent for dimethylamphetamine and other abused tertiary amines.
2001 Oct-Dec
Determination of theophylline by HPLC and GC-IDMS, the effect of chemically similar xanthine derivatives on the specificity of the method and the possibility of paracetamol as interfering substance.
2002
Salt effects on caffeine solubility, distribution, and self-association.
2002 Apr
Caffeine potentiates the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in rats.
2002 Aug
Extraction of methylxanthines from guaraná seeds, maté leaves, and cocoa beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol.
2002 Aug 14
Platinum complexes of oxopurines: cis-bis(theophyllinato-N7)bis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) and cis-chloro(theobrominato-N1)bis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) ethanol hemisolvate.
2002 Feb
Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2002 Jan
Activation of adenosine A2a receptor pathway reduces leukocyte infiltration but enhances edema formation in rat caerulein pancreatitis.
2002 Jan
Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines.
2002 Jul
Inhibition of vaccinia virus replication by adenosine in BSC-40 cells: involvement of A(2) receptor-mediated PKA activation.
2002 Jul
Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.
2002 Jul 18
High-performance capillary electrophoresis analysis of mate infusions prepared from stems and leaves of Ilex paraguariensis using automated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
2002 Jul-Aug
Enhanced analysis of purine and pyrimidine bases by the use of double-strand polyaniline coatings in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
2002 Jun
Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use.
2002 Jun
The involvement of nitric oxide on the adenosine A(2) receptor-induced cardiovascular inhibitory responses in the posterior hypothalamus of rats.
2002 Jun 21
Selective solid-phase extraction sorbent for caffeine made by molecular imprinting.
2002 Mar 1
Study of catechin and xanthine tea profiles as geographical tracers.
2002 Mar 27
Cocaine withdrawal severity and urine toxicology results from treatment entry predict outcome in medication trials for cocaine dependence.
2002 Mar-Apr
Glucan stimulates human dermal fibroblast collagen biosynthesis through a nuclear factor-1 dependent mechanism.
2002 May-Jun
Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.
2002 Nov 20
Role of extracellular ATP metabolism in regulation of platelet reactivity.
2002 Sep
Glucose-induced islet blood flow increase in rats: interaction between nervous and metabolic mediators.
2002 Sep
Chocolate feeding of pregnant mice influences length of limbs of their progeny.
2003
RNA binding efficacy of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine.
2003 Apr
De-intercalation of ethidium bromide and acridine orange by xanthine derivatives and their modulatory effect on anticancer agents: a study of DNA-directed toxicity enlightened by time correlated single photon counting.
2003 Apr
Effect of naturally occurring plant phenolics on the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by o-toluidine.
2003 Apr 15
Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) promotes human osteoblast proliferation: a new proposal for bone tissue repair.
2003 Aug 29
Antagonism of adenosine receptors by caffeine and caffeine metabolites in equine forebrain tissues.
2003 Feb
Researching on new species of "Mate": Ilex brevicuspis: phytochemical and pharmacology study.
2003 Jan
Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.).
2003 Jan 16
Regional differences in the adenosine A(2) receptor-mediated modulation of contractions in rat vas deferens.
2003 Jan 24
Intraspinal adenosine induces spinal cord norepinephrine release in spinal nerve-ligated rats but not in normal or sham controls.
2003 Jun
Antinociceptive mechanisms of orally administered decursinol in the mouse.
2003 Jun 13
Producing decaffeinated coffee plants.
2003 Jun 19
Endogenous adenosine prevents post-tetanic release facilitation mediated by alpha3beta2 nicotinic autoreceptors.
2003 Mar 19
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants.
2003 May
Study on the paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence of theobromine, caffeine and theophylline and analytical application.
2003 May
Adenosine A1 receptor activation reduces myocardial reperfusion effects on intrinsic cardiac nervous system.
2003 May
Inhibition of caffeine biosynthesis in tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants by ribavirin.
2003 Nov 20
Adenosinergic protection of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons against mitochondrial inhibition through receptors located in the substantia nigra and striatum, respectively.
2003 Nov 26
Study on inclusion complex of cyclodextrin with methyl xanthine derivatives by fluorimetry.
2003 Oct
Purine alkaloids in Paullinia.
2003 Oct
Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 3. Synthesis, SAR, and antiinflammatory activity of a series of l-lyxofuranosyl nucleosides.
2003 Oct 23
Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of caffeine, theobromine and xanthine.
2003 Sep
Patents

Sample Use Guides

1 tablet (500 mg of theobromide sodium acetate) 3–4 times daily
Route of Administration: Oral
Alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of early to mid-stage osteogenesis, was elevated in cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells that received 25 uM theobromine and reached a maximal level of stimulation at 50–100 uM theobromine.
Name Type Language
THEOBROMINE
EP   FHFI   HSDB   INCI   MART.   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
3,7-DIHYDRO-3,7-DIMETHYL-1H-PURINE-2,6-DIONE
Systematic Name English
3,7-DIMETHYLXANTHINE
Systematic Name English
THEOBROMINE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [MI]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
FEMA NO. 3591
Code English
THEOBROMINUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
CAFFEINE MONOHYDRATE IMPURITY D [EP]
Common Name English
THEOSALVOSE
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [FHFI]
Common Name English
SC-15090
Code English
NSC-5039
Code English
THEOBROMINE [MART.]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [INCI]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [IARC]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [HSDB]
Common Name English
XANTHEOSE
Common Name English
SANTHEOSE
Brand Name English
THEOBROMINE [VANDF]
Common Name English
DIUROBROMINE
Common Name English
PENTOXIFYLLINE IMPURITY A [EP]
Common Name English
THEOBROMINE [EP]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-ATC R03DA57
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QC03BD01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC R03DA07
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QR03DA57
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QR03DA07
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
DSLD 2375 (Number of products:275)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C319
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC C03BD01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
EVMPD
SUB15511MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
83-67-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C87684
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
10437
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
DRUG CENTRAL
2618
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1114
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
5429
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
OBD445WZ5P
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
THEOBROMINE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
201-494-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D013805
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
7332
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M10703
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EPA CompTox
83-67-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01412
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:44:08 UTC 2021
PRIMARY