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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C7H7N4O2.C2H3O2.2Na.H2O
Molecular Weight 302.1949
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of THEOBROMINE SODIUM ACETATE

SMILES

O.[Na+].[Na+].CC([O-])=O.CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)[N-]C(=O)N2C

InChI

InChIKey=PIFNGEZZMGZLLC-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2.C2H4O2.2Na.H2O/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)9-7(13)11(5)2;1-2(3)4;;;/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,12,13);1H3,(H,3,4);;;1H2/q;;2*+1;/p-2

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C7H8N4O2
Molecular Weight 180.164
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula HO
Molecular Weight 17.0073
Charge -1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula Na
Molecular Weight 22.9898
Charge 1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C2H3O2
Molecular Weight 59.044
Charge -1
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Theobromine is the primary alkaloid present in the cocoa and chocolate. Theobromine is found in the shells and beans of the cacao plant and it is extracted from the husks of the bean and used for the synthesis of caffeine. Theobromine is an adenosine A1 and A2a receptor antagonist. Thesodate is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension. The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by theobromine are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include anxiety, restlessness, tremors, sleeplessness, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite. Theobromine is currently not in use as a medicinal drug.

Originator

Sources: DOI: 10.1002/jlac.18420410117

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P30543
Gene ID: 25369.0
Gene Symbol: Adora2a
Target Organism: Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
250.0 µM [IC50]
120.0 µM [Ki]
Target ID: P05177
Gene ID: 1544.0
Gene Symbol: CYP1A2
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: P05181
Gene ID: 1571.0
Gene Symbol: CYP2E1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Thesodate

Approved Use

Theobromine was used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension.
Palliative
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Primary
Thesodate

Approved Use

Theobromine used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
8.38 μg/mL
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
92 μg × h/mL
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
13351 mg × min/L
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
15.7 h
4 mg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 4 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Equus caballus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.23 h
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
88%
50 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 50 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
THEOBROMINE plasma
Rattus norvegicus
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer


Drug as victimTox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Identification and quantification of drugs in human amniotic fluid.
1975 Nov
Cytochrome P450 isoform selectivity in human hepatic theobromine metabolism.
1999 Mar
Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.
2001
Rat ventral prostate xanthine oxidase bioactivation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and 1-hydroxyethyl free radicals: analysis of its potential role in heavy alcohol drinking tumor-promoting effects.
2001
Continuous measurement of caffeine and two metabolites in blood and skeletal muscle of unrestrained adult horses by semi-automated in vivo microdialysis.
2001 Dec
Effect of methylxanthine derivatives on doxorubicin transport and antitumor activity.
2001 Dec
Regulation of K(+) current in human airway epithelial cells by exogenous and autocrine adenosine.
2001 Dec
Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.
2001 Dec 7
Caffeine metabolism before and after liver transplantation.
2001 Feb
Comparison of the potency of adenosine as an agonist at human adenosine receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
2001 Feb 15
[Cerebral infarction in a patient consuming MaHuang extract and guarana].
2001 Feb 3
Caffeine metabolism in a group of 67 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
2001 Jan
Suspected caffeine and ephedrine toxicosis resulting from ingestion of an herbal supplement containing guarana and ma huang in dogs: 47 cases (1997-1999).
2001 Jan 15
Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.
2001 Jun
Sparks and puffs in oligodendrocyte progenitors: cross talk between ryanodine receptors and inositol trisphosphate receptors.
2001 Jun 1
A new caffeine biosynthetic pathway in tea leaves: utilisation of adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle.
2001 Jun 15
[Simultaneous determination of various food additives by high performance liquid chromatography].
2001 Mar
Cytosolic xanthine oxidoreductase mediated bioactivation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and free radicals in rat breast tissue. Its potential role in alcohol-promoted mammary cancer.
2001 Mar 7
Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson's disease.
2001 May 15
Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products.
2001 May 21
Effects of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the rate of caffeine demethylation and hydroxylation in the rat liver.
2001 Nov-Dec
Role of adenosine in renal protection induced by a brief episode of ischemic preconditioning in rats.
2001 Oct
Determination of theophylline by HPLC and GC-IDMS, the effect of chemically similar xanthine derivatives on the specificity of the method and the possibility of paracetamol as interfering substance.
2002
Salt effects on caffeine solubility, distribution, and self-association.
2002 Apr
Caffeine potentiates the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in rats.
2002 Aug
Extraction of methylxanthines from guaraná seeds, maté leaves, and cocoa beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol.
2002 Aug 14
Group I aptazymes as genetic regulatory switches.
2002 Dec 4
Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2002 Jan
Inhibition of vaccinia virus replication by adenosine in BSC-40 cells: involvement of A(2) receptor-mediated PKA activation.
2002 Jul
Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.
2002 Jul 18
Synergistic up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in murine macrophages by adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists and endotoxin.
2002 Jun
The involvement of nitric oxide on the adenosine A(2) receptor-induced cardiovascular inhibitory responses in the posterior hypothalamus of rats.
2002 Jun 21
Selective solid-phase extraction sorbent for caffeine made by molecular imprinting.
2002 Mar 1
Glucan stimulates human dermal fibroblast collagen biosynthesis through a nuclear factor-1 dependent mechanism.
2002 May-Jun
Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.
2002 Nov 20
Role of extracellular ATP metabolism in regulation of platelet reactivity.
2002 Sep
Glucose-induced islet blood flow increase in rats: interaction between nervous and metabolic mediators.
2002 Sep
Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) promotes human osteoblast proliferation: a new proposal for bone tissue repair.
2003 Aug 29
Inhibition of caffeine biosynthesis in tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants by ribavirin.
2003 Nov 20
Adenosinergic protection of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons against mitochondrial inhibition through receptors located in the substantia nigra and striatum, respectively.
2003 Nov 26
Purine alkaloids in Paullinia.
2003 Oct
Patents

Sample Use Guides

1 tablet (500 mg of theobromide sodium acetate) 3–4 times daily
Route of Administration: Oral
Alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of early to mid-stage osteogenesis, was elevated in cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells that received 25 uM theobromine and reached a maximal level of stimulation at 50–100 uM theobromine.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023
Record UNII
L25DVE67VM
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
THEOBROMINE SODIUM ACETATE
Systematic Name English
EQUIMOLAR MIXTURE OF SODIUM THEOBROMINE AND SODIUM ACETATE, CONTAINING ONE WATER
Common Name English
THESODATE
Common Name English
Code System Code Type Description
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1114
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
L25DVE67VM
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
76967395
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 15:47:13 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
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ANHYDROUS->SOLVATE
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ACTIVE MOIETY