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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C4H6O4
Molecular Weight 118.088
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of SUCCINIC ACID

SMILES

OC(=O)CCC(O)=O

InChI

InChIKey=KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description
Curator's Comment: The description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461009 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24771373 | https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/dashboard/searchResults.xhtml?searchQuery=PB254541 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10464017

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leigh's disease, and Mela's disease and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins. Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications. As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry. It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste.[11] As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
3.0 µM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Inactive ingredient
Reamberin

Approved Use

Unknown
Inactive ingredient
Metoprolol Succinate ER

Approved Use

Unknown
Inactive ingredient
VESIcare

Approved Use

Unknown
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Inhibition of spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophages in Escherichia coli cultures: simple procedures with possible biotechnological applications.
2001
Ultrastructural localization of succinate dehydrogenase in some bacteria, after treatment with Lubrol W1.
2001
Inhibition of Escherichia coli respiratory enzymes by the lactoperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-thiocyanate antimicrobial system.
2001 Apr
A transient inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by nitric oxide synthase activation triggered apoptosis in primary cortical neurons.
2001 Apr
Enhancement of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine neurotoxicity by the energy inhibitor malonate.
2001 Apr
N-Acetylaspartate, a marker of both cellular dysfunction and neuronal loss: its relevance to studies of acute brain injury.
2001 Apr
The effects of endurance training and exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).
2001 Apr
Glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction are induced by chronic stress in rat brain.
2001 Apr
Attenuation of malonate toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures using the GABA transport blocker, NO-711.
2001 Apr 1
A high-resolution integrated map spanning the SDHD gene at 11q23: a 1.1-Mb BAC contig, a partial transcript map and 15 new repeat polymorphisms in a tumour-suppressor region.
2001 Feb
Effects of cresols (o-, m-, and p-isomers) on the bioenergetic system in isolated rat liver mitochondria.
2001 Feb
Towards developing a non-SnCl2 formulation for RP444, a new radiopharmaceutical for thrombus imaging.
2001 Feb
Time-course changes in arteriolar and venular portions of capillary in young treadmill-trained rats.
2001 Jan
Adenine and guanine nucleotide-specific succinyl-CoA synthetases in the clonal beta-cell mitochondria: implications in the beta-cell high-energy phosphate metabolism in relation to physiological insulin secretion.
2001 Jan
Effects of cortisol on chloride cells in the gill epithelium of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.
2001 Jan
Characteristics and glycerol metabolism of fumarate-reducing Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.
2001 Jan 5
Succinic acid production with reduced by-product formation in the fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens using glycerol as a carbon source.
2001 Jan 5
Quantitative cytochemical mapping of mitochondrial enzymes in rat cerebella.
2001 Jun
Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III). Effect of inhibitors on cytochrome b reduction in submitochondrial particles and the role of ubiquinone in complex III.
2001 Jun 1
Kinetic analyses of mitochondrial 75selenium uptake in Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings exposed to selenium and mimosine.
2001 Mar
Metabolic enzymes and phenotypic expression among human locomotor muscles.
2001 Mar
Variables in human liver microsome preparation: impact on the kinetics of l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) n-demethylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation.
2001 Mar
The simplest supramolecular complexes containing pairs of Mo(2)(formamidinate)(3) units linked with various dicarboxylates: preparative methods, structures, and electrochemistry.
2001 Mar 12
Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pseudorevertants containing suppressors of the catabolite repression control-defective crc-10 allele.
2001 Mar 15
Analysis of sulfonated compounds by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
2001 Mar 30
Effects of culture conditions on enhancement of 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation by Burkholderia engineered with the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.
2001 Mar-Apr
The Quinone-binding sites of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
2001 May 18
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Human: 0.20mh/kg/day up tp 12.2mg
Route of Administration: Oral
Antiviral activity was measured in a plaque inhibition assay. Confluent Vero cell monolayer in 6-well multidishes were infected with 100 PFU in 1 mL of MEM medium. After adsorption at 37 °C for 2 h, residual inoculum was replaced with 1 mL of MEM medium containing 0.2% gamma-globulin and 1 mL of a dilution of varying concentrations of the Succinic acid. Virus-infected wells without compounds were used as cytopathogenicity controls. Viral cytopathogenicity (CPE) was completed 1-2 days after viral infection
Name Type Language
SUCCINIC ACID
FCC   HSDB   II   INCI   MART.   MI   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [MI]
Common Name English
DIHYDROFUMARIC ACID
Common Name English
ADIPIC ACID IMPURITY B [EP IMPURITY]
Common Name English
Succinic acid [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
FEMA NO. 4719
Code English
SUCCINIC ACID [II]
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [USP-RS]
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [INCI]
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [FCC]
Common Name English
1,2-ETHANEDICARBOXYLIC ACID
Systematic Name English
AMBER ACID
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [HSDB]
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [VANDF]
Common Name English
SUCCINICUM ACIDUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
NSC-106449
Code English
SUCCINIC ACID [MART.]
Common Name English
SUCCINICUM ACIDUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
SUCCINIC ACID [USP IMPURITY]
Common Name English
BUTANEDIOIC ACID
Systematic Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CFR 21 CFR 172.230
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DSLD 3384 (Number of products:37)
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NCI_THESAURUS C345
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CFR 21 CFR 184.1091
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Code System Code Type Description
MESH
D019802
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PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000078761
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PRIMARY
DAILYMED
AB6MNQ6J6L
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PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C61954
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PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1623411
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PRIMARY
CAS
110-15-6
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PRIMARY
GRAS Notification (GRN No.)
552
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PRIMARY
FDA UNII
AB6MNQ6J6L
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PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID6023602
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PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00139
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PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1623422
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ALTERNATIVE
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
203-740-4
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB12599MIG
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PRIMARY
RXCUI
37255
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PRIMARY RxNorm
MERCK INDEX
m10269
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PRIMARY Merck Index
DRUG CENTRAL
2487
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
15741
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PRIMARY
NSC
106449
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PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
SUCCINIC ACID
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:27:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 17:27:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
1110
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PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL576
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PRIMARY