U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 31 - 40 of 125036 results


Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Triheptanoin (also known as C7 oil) is an investigational medical food or supplement. Triheptanoin is thought to have an anaplerotic role, meaning that it can replenish substances involved in the tricarbolic acid cycle, a pathway used by cells to produce energy, providing an alternative source of energy to the brain. It supplies the body with heptanoate which can either be oxidized to propionyl-CoA directly or is metabolized by the liver to the“C5 ketones”, β-ketopentanoate and/or β-hydroxypentanoate, which are released into the blood. After one month of triheptanoin use, the level of energy production in the brain during visual stimulation had become normal in Huntington’s patients. Triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. Despite the unknown mechanism of triheptanoin’s anticonvulsant action, the fact that triheptanoin has been used safely in several animals and for various metabolic diseases in children and adults should expedite the ethical and regulatory approval processes for a clinical trial in medically refractory patients with epilepsy. Triheptanoin is phase II clinical trial for the treatment of glycogen storage disease type V, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
TUCATINIB (ONT-380 or ARRY-380) is an orally active, reversible and selective small-molecule HER2 inhibitor invented by Array and licensed to Cascadian Therapeutics (previously named Oncothyreon) for development, manufacturing and commercialization. HER2, a growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in multiple cancers, including breast, ovarian, and stomach cancer. HER2 mediates cell growth, differentiation and survival, and tumors that overexpress HER2 are more aggressive and historically have been associated with poorer overall survival compared with HER2-negative cancers. ONT-380 is highly active as a single agent and in combination with both chemotherapy and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) in xenograft models of HER2+ breast cancer, including models of CNS metastases that were refractory to Tykerb® (lapatinib) or neratinib treatment. In a Phase 1 single agent clinical study, ONT-380 administered orally twice a day was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in heavily pre-treated HER2+ breast cancer patients with metastatic disease. Based on the strength of these preclinical and clinical trials, ONT-380 is advancing in one Phase 2 and three Phase 1b combination trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A second study reported the CNS activity of ONT-380 in combination with either T-DM1 or trastuzumab or capecitabine. Patients with brain metastases assessable for response were included in the combined analysis. Responses and clinical benefit in the CNS were reported with the three combinations tested, supporting future development of the drug for this particular indication.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Fostemsavir (BMS-663068) is an investigational attachment inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. It is a prodrug of temsavir, which binds to HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), thereby preventing viral attachment to the host CD4 cell surface receptor. In the absence of effective binding of HIV gp120 with the host CD4 receptor, HIV does not enter the host cell. Because fostemsavir has a novel mechanism of action, the drug should have full activity against HIV strains that have developed resistance to other classes of antiretroviral medications. In a phase 2b study of treatment-experienced individuals, fostemsavir appeared to be well tolerated. Phase 3 studies are ongoing.
Osilodrostat (INN, USAN) (developmental code name LCI-699) is an orally active, non-steroidal corticosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor which is under development by Novartis for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome and pituitary ACTH hypersecretion (a specific subtype of Cushing's syndrome). Osilodrostat specifically acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and at higher dosages of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1). Osilodrostat decreases plasma and urinary aldosterone levels and rapidly corrects hypokalemia, in patients with primary aldosteronism and hypertension. At doses ≥1 mg o.d. Osilodrostat markedly increases 11-deoxycortisol plasma levels and blunts ACTH-stimulated cortisol release in ≈20% of patients, consistent with the inhibition of CYP11B1. In patients with resistant hypertension, Osilodrostat produces a non-significant reduction in blood pressure, possibly due to the increase in 11-deoxycortisol levels and the stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback axis. Because of the lack of selectivity, poor antihypertensive effect, and short half-life, the development of Osilodrostat as antihypertensive was halted. As of 2017, Osilodrostat is in phase III and phase II clinical trials for the treatment of pituitary ACTH hypersecretion and Cushing's syndrome, respectively.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Lactitol is a sugar alcohol. This ingredient has been determined to be GRAS for specified uses as a direct food additive and foods containing lactitol are eligible for a health claim related to dental caries. Lactitol is used as an oral powder or solution in the management of hepatic encephalopathy and in case of short-term treatment of occasional constipation. Intestinal flora of large intestine is metabolize lactitol to low-molecular organic acid, which leads to an increase in osmotic pressure in intestine, increase in volume of fecal masses bowel function normalization. This drug might cause abdominal discomfort, especially flatulence and abdominal pain rarely or sometimes abdominal distension. These effects tend to diminish or disappear after a few days of regular intake of the drug. Since 'antacids and neomycin can neutralize ' acidifying effect of lactitol on stool, they should not be co-administered with lactitol in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy; however both substances do not alter the 'laxative effect in patients with constipation.
Ozanimod (previously known as RPC-1063) is a selective immune-inflammatory modulator of the G protein-coupled receptors sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 and 5, which are part of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor family. Treatment with S1P receptor modulators interferes with S1P signaling and blocks the response of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to exit signals from the lymph nodes, sequestering them within the nodes. The result is a downward modulation of circulating lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cell migration to sites of inflammation. Ozanimod is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) and ulcerative colitis, and also in phase II clinical trials to determine whether it is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease.