U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 11 - 20 of 107353 results

Bristol-Myers Squibb developed Rimegepant, also known as BMS-927711. Rimegepant is a potent, selective, competitive and orally active calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist in clinical trials for treating migraine. Rimegepant has shown in vivo efficacy without vasoconstrictor effect; it is superior to placebo at several different doses (75 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg) and has an excellent tolerability profile.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Vibegron is a selective beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR) agonist that is being developed in Japan jointly by Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd and Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd and in other regions worldwide (except in several other Asian countries) by Urovant Sciences for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Vibegron potently activates human b3AR and increases cAMP levels, with an EC50 of 1.1 nM. Based on results from Japanese phase III trials, vibegron received approval in Japan in September 2018 for this indication. Vibegron, an active ingredient of Beova® Tablets, is a novel once-daily oral treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), acts selectively on the bladder's β3-adrenergic receptor, relaxes the bladder and enhances the urine collection, and consequently improves the symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and urge urinary incontinence associated with OAB.
Bempedoic acid (also known as ETC-1002) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Investigations into the mechanism of action revealed that bempedoic acid-free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β-1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. In the liver, bempedoic acid is also converted to a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative (ETC-1002-CoA )which directly inhibits ATP citrate lyase (ACL), a key enzyme that supplies a substrate for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Inhibition of ACL by ETC-1002-CoA results in reduced cholesterol synthesis and upregulation of LDL receptor activity in the liver. This promotes the removal of LDL-C from the blood.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Cortexolone 17α-propionate (WINLEVI, BREEZULA) is a steroid belonging to the family of cortexolone derivatives. It is a topical and peripherally selective androgen antagonist. WINLEVI is used for the treatment of acne and has completed Phase II clinical trials and Phase III trials. BREEZULA is used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and is currently undergoing a Phase II trial in the US.
Nifurtimox is a nitrofuran derivative used as a primary agent in the treatment of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, especially in the acute, early stage of the disease. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the treatment of chronic Chagas' disease varies from one country to another, possibly due to variation in the sensitivity of different strains of the organism. Nifurtimox has also been used to treat African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and is active in the second stage of the disease (central nervous system involvement). When nifurtimox is given on its own, about half of all patients will relapse, but the combination of melarsoprol with nifurtimox appears to be efficacious. Nifurtimox forms a nitro-anion radical metabolite that reacts with nucleic acids of the parasite causing significant break down of DNA. Nifurtimox undergoes reduction and creates oxygen radicals such as superoxide. These radicals are toxic to T. cruzi. Mammalian cells are protected by the presence of catalase, glutathione, peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide to cytotoxic levels results in parasite death. Side effects occur following chronic administration, particularly in elderly people. Major toxicities include immediate hypersensitivities such as anaphylaxis and delayed hypersensitivity reaction involving icterus and dermatitis. Central nervous system disturbances and peripheral neuropathy may also occur.
Amisulpride, a benzamide derivative, shows a unique therapeutic profile being atypical antipsychotic. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors. At higher doses, amisupride antagonises postsynaptic dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, preferentially in the limbic system rather than the striatum, thereby reducing dopaminergic transmission. In addition its antagonism at serotonin 5-HT7 receptors likely underlies the antidepressant actions. Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Remimazolam is an intravenous benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic with rapid onset and offset of action. This compound undergoes organ-independent metabolism to an inactive metabolite. Like other benzodiazepines, remimazolam can be reversed with flumazenil to rapidly terminate sedation and anesthesia. Phase I and II clinical trials have shown that remimazolam is safe and effective when used for procedural sedation. Phase III clinical trials have been completed investigating efficacy and safety in patients undergoing bronchoscopy and colonoscopy. The developer of this drug has suggested that intensive care unit sedation (beyond 24 hours) could be another possible indication for further development, since it is unlikely that prolonged infusions or higher doses of remimazolam would result in accumulation and extended effect.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Opicapone (Ongentys®), a potent, oral, third-generation, long-acting, peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, is approved as the adjunctive treatment to levodopa (L-Dopa)/dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) therapy in adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) and end-of-dose motor fluctuations who cannot be stabilized on those combinations. Opicapone is a hydrophilic 1,2,4-oxadiazole analog with a pyridine N-oxide at position 3, with these modifications enhancing its potency and extending its duration of action, whilst avoiding cell toxicity. In preclinical animal studies, Opicapone-induced inhibition of peripheral (but not central) COMT activity was associated with a prolonged increase in systemic and central exposure to L-Dopa, with a corresponding reduction in 3-OMD exposure. Following single or multiple doses of Opicapone (5–1200 mg) in healthy adult volunteers or patients with PD, Opicapone inhibited COMT activity in ex vivo erythrocyte assays in a reversible dose-dependent manner, with the duration of Opicapone-induced COMT inhibition independent of dose. Adjunctive Opicapone was generally well tolerated during more than a year of treatment in BIPARK I and BIPARK II (double-blind plus extension phases). The recommended dosage is 50 mg once daily, which should be taken at bedtime at least 1 h before or after L-Dopa combinations.
Relugolix (TAK-385) is an orally active nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that binds to human GnRH receptors with subnanomolar affinity. Relugolix was demonstrated to act as a classic competitive antagonist of GnRH binding, but the exact molecular mechanism of that antagonism remains unknown. This drug is being developed as a treatment for various sex hormone related disorders. Clinical trials have been conducted to study safety and efficacy of relugolix as a treatment in endometriosis, uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths of the uterus), and prostate cancer. Two phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of Relugolix in patients with uterine fibroids were completed in 2019. No serious adverse events were reported.
TUCATINIB (ONT-380 or ARRY-380) is an orally active, reversible and selective small-molecule HER2 inhibitor invented by Array and licensed to Cascadian Therapeutics (previously named Oncothyreon) for development, manufacturing and commercialization. HER2, a growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in multiple cancers, including breast, ovarian, and stomach cancer. HER2 mediates cell growth, differentiation and survival, and tumors that overexpress HER2 are more aggressive and historically have been associated with poorer overall survival compared with HER2-negative cancers. ONT-380 is highly active as a single agent and in combination with both chemotherapy and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) in xenograft models of HER2+ breast cancer, including models of CNS metastases that were refractory to Tykerb® (lapatinib) or neratinib treatment. In a Phase 1 single agent clinical study, ONT-380 administered orally twice a day was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in heavily pre-treated HER2+ breast cancer patients with metastatic disease. Based on the strength of these preclinical and clinical trials, ONT-380 is advancing in one Phase 2 and three Phase 1b combination trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A second study reported the CNS activity of ONT-380 in combination with either T-DM1 or trastuzumab or capecitabine. Patients with brain metastases assessable for response were included in the combined analysis. Responses and clinical benefit in the CNS were reported with the three combinations tested, supporting future development of the drug for this particular indication.