U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Lactitol is a sugar alcohol. This ingredient has been determined to be GRAS for specified uses as a direct food additive and foods containing lactitol are eligible for a health claim related to dental caries. Lactitol is used as an oral powder or solution in the management of hepatic encephalopathy and in case of short-term treatment of occasional constipation. Intestinal flora of large intestine is metabolize lactitol to low-molecular organic acid, which leads to an increase in osmotic pressure in intestine, increase in volume of fecal masses bowel function normalization. This drug might cause abdominal discomfort, especially flatulence and abdominal pain rarely or sometimes abdominal distension. These effects tend to diminish or disappear after a few days of regular intake of the drug. Since 'antacids and neomycin can neutralize ' acidifying effect of lactitol on stool, they should not be co-administered with lactitol in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy; however both substances do not alter the 'laxative effect in patients with constipation.
Bristol-Myers Squibb developed Rimegepant, also known as BMS-927711. Rimegepant is a potent, selective, competitive and orally active calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist in clinical trials for treating migraine. Rimegepant has shown in vivo efficacy without vasoconstrictor effect; it is superior to placebo at several different doses (75 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg) and has an excellent tolerability profile.
Bempedoic acid (also known as ETC-1002) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Investigations into the mechanism of action revealed that bempedoic acid-free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β-1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. In the liver, bempedoic acid is also converted to a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative (ETC-1002-CoA )which directly inhibits ATP citrate lyase (ACL), a key enzyme that supplies a substrate for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Inhibition of ACL by ETC-1002-CoA results in reduced cholesterol synthesis and upregulation of LDL receptor activity in the liver. This promotes the removal of LDL-C from the blood.
Amisulpride, a benzamide derivative, shows a unique therapeutic profile being atypical antipsychotic. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors. At higher doses, amisupride antagonises postsynaptic dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, preferentially in the limbic system rather than the striatum, thereby reducing dopaminergic transmission. In addition its antagonism at serotonin 5-HT7 receptors likely underlies the antidepressant actions. Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Remimazolam is an intravenous benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic with rapid onset and offset of action. This compound undergoes organ-independent metabolism to an inactive metabolite. Like other benzodiazepines, remimazolam can be reversed with flumazenil to rapidly terminate sedation and anesthesia. Phase I and II clinical trials have shown that remimazolam is safe and effective when used for procedural sedation. Phase III clinical trials have been completed investigating efficacy and safety in patients undergoing bronchoscopy and colonoscopy. The developer of this drug has suggested that intensive care unit sedation (beyond 24 hours) could be another possible indication for further development, since it is unlikely that prolonged infusions or higher doses of remimazolam would result in accumulation and extended effect.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Opicapone (Ongentys®), a potent, oral, third-generation, long-acting, peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, is approved as the adjunctive treatment to levodopa (L-Dopa)/dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) therapy in adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) and end-of-dose motor fluctuations who cannot be stabilized on those combinations. Opicapone is a hydrophilic 1,2,4-oxadiazole analog with a pyridine N-oxide at position 3, with these modifications enhancing its potency and extending its duration of action, whilst avoiding cell toxicity. In preclinical animal studies, Opicapone-induced inhibition of peripheral (but not central) COMT activity was associated with a prolonged increase in systemic and central exposure to L-Dopa, with a corresponding reduction in 3-OMD exposure. Following single or multiple doses of Opicapone (5–1200 mg) in healthy adult volunteers or patients with PD, Opicapone inhibited COMT activity in ex vivo erythrocyte assays in a reversible dose-dependent manner, with the duration of Opicapone-induced COMT inhibition independent of dose. Adjunctive Opicapone was generally well tolerated during more than a year of treatment in BIPARK I and BIPARK II (double-blind plus extension phases). The recommended dosage is 50 mg once daily, which should be taken at bedtime at least 1 h before or after L-Dopa combinations.
TUCATINIB (ONT-380 or ARRY-380) is an orally active, reversible and selective small-molecule HER2 inhibitor invented by Array and licensed to Cascadian Therapeutics (previously named Oncothyreon) for development, manufacturing and commercialization. HER2, a growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in multiple cancers, including breast, ovarian, and stomach cancer. HER2 mediates cell growth, differentiation and survival, and tumors that overexpress HER2 are more aggressive and historically have been associated with poorer overall survival compared with HER2-negative cancers. ONT-380 is highly active as a single agent and in combination with both chemotherapy and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) in xenograft models of HER2+ breast cancer, including models of CNS metastases that were refractory to Tykerb® (lapatinib) or neratinib treatment. In a Phase 1 single agent clinical study, ONT-380 administered orally twice a day was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in heavily pre-treated HER2+ breast cancer patients with metastatic disease. Based on the strength of these preclinical and clinical trials, ONT-380 is advancing in one Phase 2 and three Phase 1b combination trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A second study reported the CNS activity of ONT-380 in combination with either T-DM1 or trastuzumab or capecitabine. Patients with brain metastases assessable for response were included in the combined analysis. Responses and clinical benefit in the CNS were reported with the three combinations tested, supporting future development of the drug for this particular indication.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Fostemsavir (BMS-663068) is an investigational attachment inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. It is a prodrug of temsavir, which binds to HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), thereby preventing viral attachment to the host CD4 cell surface receptor. In the absence of effective binding of HIV gp120 with the host CD4 receptor, HIV does not enter the host cell. Because fostemsavir has a novel mechanism of action, the drug should have full activity against HIV strains that have developed resistance to other classes of antiretroviral medications. In a phase 2b study of treatment-experienced individuals, fostemsavir appeared to be well tolerated. Phase 3 studies are ongoing.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Flortaucipir (18F-AV-1451, also known as 18F-T807) is a highly selective positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent targeting paired helical filament (PHF)-tau in the brain. This tracer is studying for clinical assessment in patients with various tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as in healthy subjects.
Ozanimod (previously known as RPC-1063) is a selective immune-inflammatory modulator of the G protein-coupled receptors sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 and 5, which are part of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor family. Treatment with S1P receptor modulators interferes with S1P signaling and blocks the response of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to exit signals from the lymph nodes, sequestering them within the nodes. The result is a downward modulation of circulating lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cell migration to sites of inflammation. Ozanimod is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) and ulcerative colitis, and also in phase II clinical trials to determine whether it is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease.