U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Fostamatinib is a pro-drug of a Syk inhibitor R406 initially developed by Rigel Pharmaceuticals, but then in-licensed by AstraZeneca. It reached phase III of clinical trials for such diseases as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, however, AstraZeneca decided not to proceed with regulatory filings and return the rights to the compound to Rigel Pharmaceuticals. In 2018 the drug was approved by the FDA for treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Fostamatinib is being developed for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (phase II), graft versus host disease (phase I) and ovarian cancer (phase I).
Rifamycin SV is a derivative of antibiotic rifamycin B (the natural fermentation product of S. mediterranei broths). The primary target of rifampicin on whole bacteria is the synthesis of RNA. Rifamycin belongs to the ansamycin class of antibacterial drugs and acts by inhibiting the beta subunit of the bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking one of the steps in DNA transcription. This results in inhibition of bacterial synthesis and consequently growth of bacteria. Rifampicin exhibits bactericidal activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on mycobacteria. Rifamycin SV MMX® (AEMCOLO), a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. AEMCOLO is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by non-invasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults.
Flibanserin is the first drug to be approved for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women by the FDA in August 2015. It was originally developed as an antidepressant medication by Boehringer Ingelheim, but showed lack of efficacy in trials and was further developed as a hypoactive sexual disorder drug by Sprout Pharmaceuticals. Flibanserin's mechanism of action is attributed to its high affinity for 5-HTA1 and 5-HTA2 receptors, displaying agonist activity on 5-HTA1 and antagonist on 5-HTA2, resulting in lowering of serotonin in the brain as well as an effect on increasing norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters. Flibansetrin has high affinity for serotonin receptors in the brain: it acts as an agonist on 5-HT1A and an antagonist on 5-HT2A. In vivo, flibanserin binds equally to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. However, under higher levels of brain 5-HT (i.e., under stress), flibanserin may occupy 5-HT2A receptors in higher proportion than 5-HT(1A) receptors. It may also moderately antagonize D4 (dopamine) receptors and 5-HT2B and 5-HTB2C. Its action on neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to reduction in serotonin levels and increase in dopamine and norepinephrine levels, all of which may play part in reward processing. Flibanserin is sold under the trade name Addyi and indicated for the treatment of premenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as characterized by low sexual desire that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
Dienogest (Natazia) is a hybrid progestogen that combines properties of both the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and the progesterone derivatives. It is indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in women without organic pathology. Dienogest is also approved in Europe, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Japan for the treatment of endometriosis. It is lowers the risk of becoming pregnant primarily by suppressing ovulation. Other possible mechanisms may include cervical mucus changes that inhibit sperm penetration and endometrial changes that reduce the likelihood of implantation. Dienogest exhibits highly selective binding to the progesterone receptor. It has high progestational and significant antiandrogenic activity, but only moderate antigonadotrophic activity. The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials for Natazia are headache (including migraines), breast pain, menstrual disorders, nausea or vomiting, acne, mood changes and increased weight.
Tolvaptan is a selective and competitive arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist. Vasopressin acts on the V2 receptors found in the walls of the vasculature and luminal membranes of renal collecting ducts. By blocking V2 receptors in the renal collecting ducts, aquaporins do not insert themselves into the walls thus preventing water absorption. This action ultimately results in an increase in urine volume, decrease urine osmolality, and increase electrolyte-free water clearance to reduce intravascular volume and an increase serum sodium levels. Tolvaptan is especially useful for heart failure patients as they have higher serum levels of vasopressin. Tolvaptan is used to treat low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) associated with various conditions like congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormones (SIADH). FDA approved on May 19, 2009. Tolvaptan is sold under the trade names Samsca and Jinarc.
IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) is a radiopharmaceutical agent for gamma-scintigraphy. It is similar in structure to the antihypertensive drug guanethidine and to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE). IOBENGUANE is, therefore, largely subject to the same uptake and accumulation pathways as NE. It is taken up by the NE transporter in adrenergic nerve terminals and stored in the presynaptic storage vesicles. IOBENGUANE accumulates in adrenergically innervated tissues such as the adrenal medulla, salivary glands, heart, liver, spleen, and lungs as well as tumors derived from the neural crest. By labeling IOBENGUANE with the isotope iodine 123 (I-123), it is possible to obtain scintigraphic images of the organs and tissues in which the radiopharmaceutical accumulates. IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) is indicated for use in the detection of primary or metastatic pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma. It is also used for scintigraphic assessment of sympathetic innervation of the myocardium by measurement of the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of radioactivity uptake in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or class III heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%. Among these patients, IOBENGUANE I-123 (AdreView®) may be used to help identify patients with lower one and two-year mortality risks, as indicated by an H/M ratio ≥ 1.6.
Travoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is a synthetic prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue that is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to its biologically active free acid. The travoporst free acid is potent and highly selective for the FP prostanoid receptor. Travoprost free acid is a selective FP prostanoid receptor agonist and is believed to reduce intraocular pressure by increasing the drainage of aqueous humor, which is done primarily through increased uveoscleral outflow and to a lesser extent, trabecular outflow facility. Travoprost ophthalmic solution is used for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant of other intraocular pressure lowering medications or insufficiently responsive (failed to achieve target IOP determined after multiple measurements over time) to another intraocular pressure lowering medication. Travoprost is known by the brand names of Travatan and Travatan Z, manufactured by Alcon.
Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz. The bactericidal activity of ertapenem results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through ertapenem binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). In Escherichia coli, it has strong affinity toward PBPs 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4 and 5 with preference for PBPs 2 and 3. Ertapenem has been designed to be effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The most common drug-related adverse experiences in patients treated with INVANZ, including those who were switched to therapy with an oral antimicrobial, were diarrhea (5.5%), infused vein complication (3.7%), nausea (3.1%), headache (2.2%), vaginitis in females (2.1%), phlebitis/thrombophlebitis (1.3%), and vomiting (1.1%). The coadministration with probenecid to extend the half-life of ertapenem is not recommended.
Rivastigmine (sold under the trade name Exelon) is a parasympathomimetic or cholinergic agent for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type and dementia due to Parkinson's disease. Rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, inhibits both butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase (unlike donepezil, which selectively inhibits acetylcholinesterase). It is thought to work by inhibiting these cholinesterase enzymes, which would otherwise break down the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Rivastigmine capsules, liquid solution, and patches are used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type and for mild to moderate dementia related to Parkinson's disease. Rivastigmine has demonstrated treatment effects on the cognitive (thinking and memory), functional (activities of daily living) and behavioral problems commonly associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease dementia. In people with either type of dementia, rivastigmine has been shown to provide meaningful symptomatic effects that may allow patients to remain independent and ‘be themselves’ for longer. In particular, it appears to show marked treatment effects in patients showing a more aggressive course of the disease, such as those with younger-onset ages, poor nutritional status, or those experiencing symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. Side effects may include nausea and vomiting, decreased appetite and weight loss.
Levalbuterol is the (R)-enantiomer of the drug substance racemic albuterol (salbutamol). Binding studies have demonstrated that (R)-albuterol binds to the beta2-adrenergic receptor with a high affinity, whereas (S)-albuterol binds with 100-fold less affinity than (R)-albuterol. Other evaluations have suggested that (R)-albuterol possesses the bronchodilatory, bronchoprotective, and ciliary-stimulatory properties of racemic albuterol, while (S)-albuterol does not contribute beneficially to the therapeutic effects of the racemate and was originally assumed to be inert. Xopenex (levalbuterol HCl) Inhalation Solution is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in adults, adolescents, and children 6 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease.