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There is one exact (name or code) match for levodopa

 
Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Levodopa (L-DOPA) was first isolated from seedlings of Vicia faba by Marcus Guggenheim in 1913. Levodopa, a dopamine precursor, is an effective and well-tolerated dopamine replacement agent used to treat Parkinson's disease. Oral levodopa has been widely used for over 40 years, often in combination with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, which reduces many treatment complications, extending its half-life and increasing levodopa availability to the brain. Entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, can also be used to improve the bioavailability of levodopa, especially when used in conjunction with a carbidopa.

Showing 1 - 10 of 33 results

Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Levodopa (L-DOPA) was first isolated from seedlings of Vicia faba by Marcus Guggenheim in 1913. Levodopa, a dopamine precursor, is an effective and well-tolerated dopamine replacement agent used to treat Parkinson's disease. Oral levodopa has been widely used for over 40 years, often in combination with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, which reduces many treatment complications, extending its half-life and increasing levodopa availability to the brain. Entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, can also be used to improve the bioavailability of levodopa, especially when used in conjunction with a carbidopa.
Entacapone is a selective, reversible catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a member of the class of nitrocatechols. When administered concomittantly with levodopa and a decarboxylase inhibitor (e.g., carbidopa), increased and more sustained plasma levodopa concentrations are reached as compared to the administration of levodopa and a decarboxylase inhibitor. The mechanism of action of entacapone is believed to be through its ability to inhibit COMT in peripheral tissues, altering the plasma pharmacokinetics of levodopa. When entacapone is given in conjunction with levodopa and an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, such as carbidopa, plasma levels of levodopa are greater and more sustained than after administration of levodopa and an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor alone. It is believed that at a given frequency of levodopa administration, these more sustained plasma levels of levodopa result in more constant dopaminergic stimulation in the brain, leading to a greater reduction in the manifestations of parkinsonian syndrome. Entacapone is used as an adjunct to levodopa / carbidopa in the symptomatic treatment of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease who experience the signs and symptoms of end-of-dose "wearing-off".
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine, a selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. Selegiline is available in pill form under many brand names (Eldepryl, Carbex, Atapryl) and is used to reduce symptoms in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Selegiline delays the time point when the L-DOPA (levodopa) treatment becomes necessary from about 11 months to about 18 months after diagnosis, which is beneficial despite not being definitive evidence of neuroprotection. The rationale for adding selegiline to levodopa is to decrease the required dose of levodopa and thus reduce the motor complications of levodopa therapy. Selegiline is also delivered via a transdermal patch (brand name, Emsam) and in this form, Selegiline is used as a treatment for the major depressive disorder. Selegiline (brand name Anipryl) is also used (at extremely high dosages relative to humans) in veterinary medicine to treat the symptoms of Cushing's disease and cognitive dysfunction (Canine Cognitive Dysfunction) in dogs. Side effects of the pill form include, in decreasing order of frequency, nausea, hallucinations, confusion, depression, loss of balance, insomnia, increased involuntary movements, agitation, arrhythmia, slow heart rate, delusions, hypertension, new or increased angina pectoris, and syncope. The main side effects of the patch form for depression included application site reactions, insomnia, diarrhea, and sore throat.
Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Carbidopa is a competitive inhibitor of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, is routinely administered with levodopa (LD) for the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism, which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication and/or manganese intoxication. Current evidence indicates that symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are related to depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum. Administration of dopamine is ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease apparently because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, levodopa, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, does cross the blood- brain barrier, and presumably is converted to dopamine in the brain. When levodopa is administered orally it is rapidly decarboxylated to dopamine in extracerebral tissues so that only a small portion of a given dose is transported unchanged to the central nervous system. For this reason, large doses of levodopa are required for adequate therapeutic effect and these may often be accompanied by nausea and other adverse reactions, some of which are attributable to dopamine formed in extracerebral tissues. Carbidopa inhibits decarboxylation of peripheral levodopa. Carbidopa has not been demonstrated to have any overt pharmacodynamic actions in the recommended doses.
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Dopamine, a sympathomimetic amine vasopressor, is the naturally occurring immediate precursor of norepinephrine. G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Dopamine HCl is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Status:
Investigational
Source:
NCT01336088: Phase 2 Interventional Completed Parkinson's Disease
(2011)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Dipraglurant (ADX48621) is a novel, potent mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator that reduced the severity of drug-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Dipraglurant pharmacokinetic variables were similar to those of levodopa, suggesting that both drugs can be co-administered simultaneously in further studies. Dipraglurant might be useful in torsion dystonia treatment also. Detected adverse events are: sweating, dyskinesia, nausea, dizziness, and anxiety. One serious adverse event described as possible syncope.
Status:
Investigational
Source:
NCT04435431: Phase 2 Interventional Recruiting Parkinson Disease
(2020)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Status:
Investigational
Source:
NCT00623363: Phase 2 Interventional Completed Parkinson's Disease
(2007)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Piclozotan (SUN N4057) is a 1,4-benzoxazepine derivative that exhibits sub-nanomolar affinity at serotonin 1A receptor with good selectivity over dopamine D2 and α1-adrenoceptors. Piclozotan reduced levodopa-induced forelimb hyperkinesia by 55% and 69%, respectively, at 1h relative to the control. Piclozotan significantly lengthened the duration of rotational behavior by 26% versus the control and attenuated the increase in striatal levodopa-derived extracellular dopamine levels. Piclozotan, a serotonin 1A agonist, can improve motor complications in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Piclozotan has been shown to be neuroprotective against ischemic neuronal damage in animal models. Piclozotan had been in phase II for the treatment of stroke. However, this research has been discontinued.
Status:
Investigational
Source:
J Neural Transm (Vienna). Oct 2006;113(10):1441-8.: Not Applicable Human clinical trial Completed Parkinson Disease
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) is a metabolite of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a drug used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease patients. 3-OMD is formed by catechol-O-methyltransferase. 3-OMD may be responsible for the side effects of L-DOPA.