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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C10H14N2O4
Molecular Weight 226.2296
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of CARBIDOPA ANHYDROUS

SMILES

C[C@](Cc1ccc(c(c1)O)O)(C(=O)O)NN

InChI

InChIKey=TZFNLOMSOLWIDK-JTQLQIEISA-N
InChI=1S/C10H14N2O4/c1-10(12-11,9(15)16)5-6-2-3-7(13)8(14)4-6/h2-4,12-14H,5,11H2,1H3,(H,15,16)/t10-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Carbidopa is a competitive inhibitor of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, is routinely administered with levodopa (LD) for the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism, which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication and/or manganese intoxication. Current evidence indicates that symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are related to depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum. Administration of dopamine is ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease apparently because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, levodopa, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, does cross the blood- brain barrier, and presumably is converted to dopamine in the brain. When levodopa is administered orally it is rapidly decarboxylated to dopamine in extracerebral tissues so that only a small portion of a given dose is transported unchanged to the central nervous system. For this reason, large doses of levodopa are required for adequate therapeutic effect and these may often be accompanied by nausea and other adverse reactions, some of which are attributable to dopamine formed in extracerebral tissues. Carbidopa inhibits decarboxylation of peripheral levodopa. Carbidopa has not been demonstrated to have any overt pharmacodynamic actions in the recommended doses.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Palliative
LODOSYN

Approved Use

LODOSYN is indicated for use with carbidopa-levodopa or with levodopa in the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism, which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication and/or manganese intoxication. LODOSYN is for use with carbidopa-levodopa in patients for whom the dosage of carbidopa-levodopa provides less than adequate daily dosage (usually 70 mg daily) of carbidopa. LODOSYN is for use with levodopa in the occasional patient whose dosage requirement of carbidopa and levodopa necessitates separate titration of each medication. LODOSYN is used with carbidopa-levodopa or with levodopa to permit the administration of lower doses of levodopa with reduced nausea and vomiting, more rapid dosage titration, and with a somewhat smoother response. However, patients with markedly irregular (“on-off”) responses to levodopa have not been shown to benefit from the addition of carbidopa. Since carbidopa prevents the reversal of levodopa effects caused by pyridoxine, supplemental pyridoxine (vitamin B6), can be given to patients when they are receiving carbidopa and levodopa concomitantly or as carbidopa-levodopa.

Launch Date

2.30774407E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
108.57 ng/mL
25 mg single, oral
dose: 25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: LEVODOPA
CARBIDOPA plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
559.92 ng × h/mL
25 mg single, oral
dose: 25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: LEVODOPA
CARBIDOPA plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2.09 h
25 mg single, oral
dose: 25 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: LEVODOPA
CARBIDOPA plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: FASTED
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
64%
CARBIDOPA plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Chronic akinetic mutism after mesencephalic-diencephalic infarction: remediated with dopaminergic medications.
2001
Periodic limb movement disorder : a clinical and polysomnographic study.
2001 Dec
Aldrin-induced locomotor activity: possible involvement of the central GABAergic-cholinergic-dopaminergic interaction.
2001 Jan-Feb
[The use of amantadine sulfate in combined therapy of Parkinson's disease].
2002
Chronic high dose L-DOPA alone or in combination with the COMT inhibitor entacapone does not increase oxidative damage or impair the function of the nigro-striatal pathway in normal cynomologus monkeys.
2002
[Serotonin syndrome: report of a fatal case and review of the literature].
2002 Apr
Placebo-controlled comparison of three dose-regimens of 5-hydroxytryptophan challenge test in healthy volunteers.
2002 Apr
Role of adenosine in drug-induced catatonia in mice.
2002 Aug
Selegiline: a second look. Six years later: too risky in Parkinson's disease.
2002 Aug
Two advances in the management of Parkinson disease.
2002 Aug
Acute dopaminergic challenge tests to assess postural/kinetic tremor of different origin: a case report.
2002 Aug
[The usefulness of dopaminergic drugs in traumatic brain injury].
2002 Aug 16-31
[Hallucinations caused by paroxetine taken together with a levodopa-carbidopa preparation].
2002 Aug 31
Effect of promoters on cellular immune response induced by recombinant fowlpox virus expressing multi-epitope polypeptides from HIV-1.
2002 Dec
Screening for tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency among hyperphenylalaninemia patients in Southern China.
2002 Feb
Brasofensine treatment for Parkinson's disease in combination with levodopa/carbidopa.
2002 Feb
Brain catecholamine metabolism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-deficient mice.
2002 Jan
Life-threatening parkinsonism induced by kava-kava.
2002 Jan
Parkinson disease neuropathology: later-developing dementia and loss of the levodopa response.
2002 Jan
Nitecapone and selegiline as effective adjuncts to L-DOPA in reserpine-induced catatonia in mice.
2002 Jan-Feb
A double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study of the adenosine A2A antagonist theophylline in Parkinson's disease.
2002 Jan-Feb
The SSRI, citalopram, improves bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa.
2002 Jan-Feb
Levodopa-responsive rubral (Holmes') tremor.
2002 Jul
Gateways to Clinical Trials. June 2002.
2002 Jun
[Hallucinations caused by paroxetine in combined usage of levodopa-carbidopa].
2002 Jun 1
In vivo metabolism and partitioning of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-meta-tyrosine in whole blood: a unified compartment model.
2002 Jun 7
Parkinsonism associated with interferon alpha therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia.
2002 Mar
Bruxism as presenting feature of Parkinson's disease.
2002 Mar
Entacapone in restless legs syndrome.
2002 Mar
[Hallucinations caused by paroxetine taken together with a levodopa-carbidopa preparation].
2002 Mar 23
Dopaminergic transmission in the rat striatum in vivo in conditions of pharmacological modulation.
2002 Mar-Apr
Levodopa plus carbidopa before physiotherapy increased motor recovery after stroke.
2002 Mar-Apr
Gender and pramipexole effects on levodopa pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
2002 May 14
Role of sphingosine synthesis inhibition in transcutaneous delivery of levodopa.
2002 May 15
Clozapine withdrawal symptoms in a Parkinson's disease patient.
2002 Nov
Levodopa but not ropinirole induces an internalization of D1 dopamine receptors in parkinsonian rats.
2002 Nov
Long-term follow-up of L-dopa treatment in children with amblyopia.
2002 Nov-Dec
Entacapone improves the availability of L-dopa in plasma by decreasing its peripheral metabolism independent of L-dopa/carbidopa dose.
2002 Oct
Effects of entacapone and tolcapone on mitochondrial membrane potential.
2002 Oct 18
The role of PET in localization of neuroendocrine and adrenocortical tumors.
2002 Sep
Simultaneous determination of dopa and carbidopa enantiomers by capillary zone electrophoresis.
2002 Sep
Quantitative description of loss of clinical benefit following withdrawal of levodopa-carbidopa and bromocriptine in early Parkinson's disease.
2002 Sep
Olanzapine: a proarrhythmic drug?
2002 Sep
Dopamine replacement therapy reverses abnormal synchronization of pallidal neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine primate model of parkinsonism.
2002 Sep 15
Viral encephalitis complicated by neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 7-year-old girl.
2003 Apr
Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
2003 Feb 7
Neonatal dopa-responsive extrapyramidal syndrome in twins with recessive GTPCH deficiency.
2003 Jan 28
Quercetin potentiates L-Dopa reversal of drug-induced catalepsy in rats: possible COMT/MAO inhibition.
2003 Jun
Selegiline in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: its impact on orthostatic hypotension.
2003 Mar
Parkinsonian speech disfluencies: effects of L-dopa-related fluctuations.
2003 Spring
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Whether given with carbidopa-levodopa or with levodopa, the optimal daily dose of LODOSYN (CARBIDOPA tablets) must be determined by careful titration. Most patients respond to a 1:10 proportion of carbidopa and levodopa, provided the daily dosage of carbidopa is 70 mg or more a day. The maximum daily dosage of carbidopa should not exceed 200 mg, since clinical experience with larger dosages is limited. If the patient is taking carbidopa-levodopa, the amount of carbidopa in carbidopa-levodopa should be considered when calculating the total amount of LODOSYN to be administered each day.
Route of Administration: Oral
It was evaluated the effect of carbidopa on 6-18F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) uptake in the murine β-cell line RIN-m5F. Incubation of RIN-m5F cells with 80 μM carbidopa did not significantly affect the cellular accumulation of 18F-FDOPA.
Name Type Language
CARBIDOPA ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
CARBIDOPA [INN]
Common Name English
CARBIDOPA [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
CARBIDOPA, L- ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
BENZENEPROPANOIC ACID, .ALPHA.-HYDRAZINO-3,4-DIHYDROXY-.ALPHA.-METHYL-, (S)-
Common Name English
CARBIDOPA ANHYDROUS [MI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C38149
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C66884
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
RXCUI
1545982
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
DRUG BANK
DB00190
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
28860-95-9
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
34359
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
249-271-9
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
3258
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB06126MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C61803
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB22639
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
28860-95-9
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M3068
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
KR87B45RGH
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 02:43:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY