U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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There is one exact (name or code) match for dopamine

 
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Dopamine, a sympathomimetic amine vasopressor, is the naturally occurring immediate precursor of norepinephrine. G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Dopamine HCl is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Status:
First approved in 1974

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Dopamine, a sympathomimetic amine vasopressor, is the naturally occurring immediate precursor of norepinephrine. G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Dopamine HCl is indicated for the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.
Amisulpride, a benzamide derivative, shows a unique therapeutic profile being atypical antipsychotic. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors. At higher doses, amisupride antagonises postsynaptic dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, preferentially in the limbic system rather than the striatum, thereby reducing dopaminergic transmission. In addition its antagonism at serotonin 5-HT7 receptors likely underlies the antidepressant actions. Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy.
Lumateperone (ITI-722/ITI-007) is a dual 5HT2A receptor antagonist/dopamine phosphoprotein modulator (DPPM) for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is an orally available compound which combines potent 5HT2A receptor antagonism with cell-type-specific modulation of phosphoprotein pathways downstream of dopamine receptors. Lumateperone was developed by Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., and is being evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. In 3 efficacy studies in patients with acute schizophrenia, lumateperone was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile, and in 2 studies of 3 demonstrated significantly superior efficacy over placebo.
ADX-N05, originally discovered by SK Holdings, is a selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (DNRI). ADX-N05 (Solriamfetol, sold under the brand name Sunosi) is approved in the US and is under regulatory review in the EU to improve wakefulness in adult patients with hypersomnia associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnoea.The US FDA has approved solriamfetol (Sunosi, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in adults with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea.The dual-acting dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor is approved for narcolepsy in once-daily 75 mg and 150 mg doses, and in obstructive sleep apnea in once-daily 37.5 mg, 75 mg, and 150 mg doses.
Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabidiol demonstrates a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties. Exact mechanism of action of cannabidiol is not known, but may include effects on the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; and the α3 glycine receptors. GW Pharmaceuticals successfully developed the world’s first prescription medicine derived from the cannabis plant, Sativex® (buccal spray containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) now approved in over 29 countries outside of the United States for the treatment of spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis. GW Pharmaceuticals is developing Epidiolex® (a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived cannabidiol) for certain rare and severe early-onset, drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes.
(+)-alpha-Dihydrotetrabenazine (HTBZ) is an active component of tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine is a mixture of closely-related compounds (isomers) and is readily metabolized in the human body to HTBZ and related isomers. Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder and is marketed under the trade names Nitoman in Canada and Xenazine in New Zealand and some parts of Europe, and is also available in the USA as an orphan drug. (+)-alpha-Dihydrotetrabenazine and related benzo[a]quinolizines have been labeled with tritium and carbon-11 radioisotopes and used for in vitro and in vivo studies of the VMAT2 in animal and human brain. Adeptio Pharmaceuticals is developing alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine (HTBZ) for the treatment of neurological disorders. It acts by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), thereby blocking the transport of dopamine into axon terminals or into storage vesicles.
Niraparib (MK-4827) displays excellent PARP 1 and 2 inhibition. Inhibition of PARP in the context of defects in other DNA repair mechanisms provide a tumor specific way to kill cancer cells. Niraparib is in development with TESARO, under licence from Merck & Co, for the treatment of cancers (ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma). Niraparib was characterized in a number of preclinical models before moving to phase I clinical trials, where it showed excellent human pharmacokinetics suitable for once a day oral dosing, achieved its pharmacodynamic target for PARP inhibition, and had promising activity in cancer patients. It is currently being tested in phase 3 clinical trials as maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer and as a treatment for breast cancer.
Brexpiprazole is a novel D2 dopamine and serotonin 1A partial agonist, called serotonin-dopamine activity modulator (SDAM), and a potent antagonist of serotonin 2A receptors, noradrenergic alpha 1B and 2C receptors. Brexpiprazole is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, and as an adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Although it failed Phase II clinical trials for ADHD, it has been designed to provide improved efficacy and tolerability (e.g., less akathisia, restlessness and/or insomnia) over established adjunctive treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD).Brexpiprazole is sold under the brand name Rexulti. Although the mechanism of action of brexpiprazole in the treatment of MDD and schizophrenia is unclear, the efficacy of brexpiprazole may be attributed to partial agonist activity at serotonin 1A and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonist activity at serotonin 2A receptors.
Cariprazine is an antipsychotic approved by FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. The drug has a unique clinical action which is explained by its ability to act on dopamine D3 receptors. Pharmacology studies revealed that cariprazine is a dual partial agonist of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors as well as serotonin 5HT1a, 2a and 2b receptors.
Flibanserin is the first drug to be approved for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women by the FDA in August 2015. It was originally developed as an antidepressant medication by Boehringer Ingelheim, but showed lack of efficacy in trials and was further developed as a hypoactive sexual disorder drug by Sprout Pharmaceuticals. Flibanserin's mechanism of action is attributed to its high affinity for 5-HTA1 and 5-HTA2 receptors, displaying agonist activity on 5-HTA1 and antagonist on 5-HTA2, resulting in lowering of serotonin in the brain as well as an effect on increasing norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters. Flibansetrin has high affinity for serotonin receptors in the brain: it acts as an agonist on 5-HT1A and an antagonist on 5-HT2A. In vivo, flibanserin binds equally to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. However, under higher levels of brain 5-HT (i.e., under stress), flibanserin may occupy 5-HT2A receptors in higher proportion than 5-HT(1A) receptors. It may also moderately antagonize D4 (dopamine) receptors and 5-HT2B and 5-HTB2C. Its action on neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to reduction in serotonin levels and increase in dopamine and norepinephrine levels, all of which may play part in reward processing. Flibanserin is sold under the trade name Addyi and indicated for the treatment of premenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as characterized by low sexual desire that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.