U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 11 - 20 of 2204 results


Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Lactitol is a sugar alcohol. This ingredient has been determined to be GRAS for specified uses as a direct food additive and foods containing lactitol are eligible for a health claim related to dental caries. Lactitol is used as an oral powder or solution in the management of hepatic encephalopathy and in case of short-term treatment of occasional constipation. Intestinal flora of large intestine is metabolize lactitol to low-molecular organic acid, which leads to an increase in osmotic pressure in intestine, increase in volume of fecal masses bowel function normalization. This drug might cause abdominal discomfort, especially flatulence and abdominal pain rarely or sometimes abdominal distension. These effects tend to diminish or disappear after a few days of regular intake of the drug. Since 'antacids and neomycin can neutralize ' acidifying effect of lactitol on stool, they should not be co-administered with lactitol in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy; however both substances do not alter the 'laxative effect in patients with constipation.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Cedazuridine is a specific cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor that was approved in combination with decitabine for the treatment of variable forms of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It is known that decitabine is rapidly metabolized by CDA prior to reaching systemic circulation when administered orally. Thus, cedazuridine by inhibition of CDA increases systemic exposure of decitabine.
Selpercatinib (LOXO-292, ARRY-192) is a potent and specific RET (c-RET) inhibitor that was granted accelerated FDA approval on May 8, 2020, for specific RET-driven cancer indications. It is currently marketed under the brand name RETEVMO™ by Loxo Oncology Inc.
Ozanimod (previously known as RPC-1063) is a selective immune-inflammatory modulator of the G protein-coupled receptors sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 and 5, which are part of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor family. Treatment with S1P receptor modulators interferes with S1P signaling and blocks the response of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to exit signals from the lymph nodes, sequestering them within the nodes. The result is a downward modulation of circulating lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cell migration to sites of inflammation. Ozanimod is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) and ulcerative colitis, and also in phase II clinical trials to determine whether it is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease.
Lurbinectedin (PM-01183) - is a synthetic tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one alkaloid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Lurbinectedin covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent currently undergoing late-stage (Phase II /III) clinical evaluation in platinum-resistant ovarian, BRCA1/2-mutated breast and small-cell lung cancer. Lurbinectedin is structurally related to trabectedin and it inhibits active transcription and the DNA repair machinery in tumour cells.
Sodium artesunate, an artemisinin derivative, is used in malaria treatment. Artesunate, has been licensed in Thailand for the treatment of falciparum malaria since 1990. It is a potent antimalarial drug that can reduce parasitaemia by 90% within 24 h of administration. Sodium artesunate was first isolated in China, it is a water soluble antimalaria used clinically in China.
Bempedoic acid (also known as ETC-1002) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Investigations into the mechanism of action revealed that bempedoic acid-free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β-1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. In the liver, bempedoic acid is also converted to a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative (ETC-1002-CoA )which directly inhibits ATP citrate lyase (ACL), a key enzyme that supplies a substrate for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Inhibition of ACL by ETC-1002-CoA results in reduced cholesterol synthesis and upregulation of LDL receptor activity in the liver. This promotes the removal of LDL-C from the blood.
KX-01 is a dual inhibitor of Src kinase and tubulin polymerization. KX01 promotes the induction of p53, G2/M arrest of proliferating cell populations and subsequent apoptosis via the stimulation of Caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The drug was developed by Kinex Pharmaceuticals and reached phase II of clinical trials for the treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Actinic Keratosis. KX-01 demonstrated good in vitro pofile against different cancer cell lines with IC50 in nanomolar range.
Relugolix (TAK-385) is an orally active nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that binds to human GnRH receptors with subnanomolar affinity. Relugolix was demonstrated to act as a classic competitive antagonist of GnRH binding, but the exact molecular mechanism of that antagonism remains unknown. This drug is being developed as a treatment for various sex hormone related disorders. Clinical trials have been conducted to study safety and efficacy of relugolix as a treatment in endometriosis, uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths of the uterus), and prostate cancer. Two phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of Relugolix in patients with uterine fibroids were completed in 2019. No serious adverse events were reported.
Amisulpride, a benzamide derivative, shows a unique therapeutic profile being atypical antipsychotic. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors. At higher doses, amisupride antagonises postsynaptic dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, preferentially in the limbic system rather than the striatum, thereby reducing dopaminergic transmission. In addition its antagonism at serotonin 5-HT7 receptors likely underlies the antidepressant actions. Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy.

Showing 11 - 20 of 2204 results