U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C11H16ClN5
Molecular Weight 253.7316
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of PROGUANIL

SMILES

CC(C)NC(=N)NC(=N)Nc1ccc(cc1)Cl

InChI

InChIKey=SSOLNOMRVKKSON-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C11H16ClN5/c1-7(2)15-10(13)17-11(14)16-9-5-3-8(12)4-6-9/h3-7H,1-2H3,(H5,13,14,15,16,17)

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C11H16ClN5
Molecular Weight 253.7316
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Proguanil is a prophylactic antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, from reproducing once it is in the red blood cells. Proguanil in combination with atovaquone are marked under the brand name malarone, which is indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, including in areas where chloroquine resistance has been reported. Atovaquone and proguanil, interfere with 2 different pathways involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines required for nucleic acid replication. Atovaquone is a selective inhibitor of parasite mitochondrial electron transport. Proguanil hydrochloride primarily exerts its effect by means of the metabolite cycloguanil, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase in the malaria parasite disrupts deoxythymidylate synthesis. Recently were done experiments, which confirmed the hypothesis that proguanil might act on another target than dihydrofolate reductase. In addition, was made conclusion, that effectiveness of malarone was due to the synergism between atovaquone and proguanil and may not require the presence of cycloguanil.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Curative
MALARONE

Approved Use

Prevention of Malaria: Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the prophylaxis of P. falciparum malaria, including in areas where chloroquine resistance has been reported (see CLINICAL STUDIES). Treatment of Malaria: Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets have been shown to be effective in regions where the drugs chloroquine, halofantrine, mefloquine, and amodiaquine may have unacceptable failure rates, presumably due to drug resistance.

Launch Date

963532800000
Preventing
MALARONE

Approved Use

Prevention of Malaria: Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the prophylaxis of P. falciparum malaria, including in areas where chloroquine resistance has been reported (see CLINICAL STUDIES). Treatment of Malaria: Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride tablets have been shown to be effective in regions where the drugs chloroquine, halofantrine, mefloquine, and amodiaquine may have unacceptable failure rates, presumably due to drug resistance.

Launch Date

963532800000
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
39 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
(4-CHLOROPHENYL)BIGUANIDE blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
10 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
(4-CHLOROPHENYL)BIGUANIDE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
980 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
170 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
190 ng/mL
200 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
209 ng/mL
200 mg single, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
50 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
41 ng/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
883 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
(4-CHLOROPHENYL)BIGUANIDE blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
249 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
(4-CHLOROPHENYL)BIGUANIDE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
14070 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
2975 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
141 μg × min/mL
200 mg single, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
834 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
190 μg × min/mL
200 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
661 ng × h/mL
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CYCLOGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
15.7 h
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
16.1 h
3.5 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 3.5 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
21 h
200 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
18 h
200 mg single, oral
dose: 200 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PROGUANIL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
100 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 13–74
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 13–74
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Disc. AE: Abdominal pain, Diarrhea...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Abdominal pain (0.98%)
Diarrhea (0.78%)
Vomiting (0.39%)
Nausea (1.17%)
Sources:
100 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 16 - 65
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 16 - 65
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Disc. AE: Headache...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Headache (1.14%)
Sources:
150 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 3–16
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 3–16
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Disc. AE: Abdominal pain, Nausea...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Abdominal pain (grade 1-2, 1.8%)
Nausea (grade 1-3, 1.8%)
Sources:
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Other AEs: Hair loss, Skin scaly...
Other AEs:
Hair loss
Skin scaly
Scales
Aphthous ulcer
Hematologic disorder
Sources:
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Other AEs: Epigastric discomfort, Vomiting...
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Vomiting 0.39%
Disc. AE
100 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 13–74
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 13–74
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Diarrhea 0.78%
Disc. AE
100 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 13–74
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 13–74
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Abdominal pain 0.98%
Disc. AE
100 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 13–74
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 13–74
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Nausea 1.17%
Disc. AE
100 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 13–74
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 13–74
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Headache 1.14%
Disc. AE
100 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 100 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 100 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 16 - 65
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 16 - 65
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Abdominal pain grade 1-2, 1.8%
Disc. AE
150 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 3–16
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 3–16
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Nausea grade 1-3, 1.8%
Disc. AE
150 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Recommended
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 150 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 3–16
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 3–16
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Aphthous ulcer
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Hair loss
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Hematologic disorder
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Scales
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Skin scaly
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Epigastric discomfort
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Vomiting
200 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
Overdose
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG



OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer



Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as victim
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A case of recurrent subacute disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with malarial prophylaxis.
1975 Jan 25
Neuromyopathy associated with amodiaquine hydrochloride.
1987 Oct 1
In vitro cultivation of Cryptosporidium parvum and screening for anticryptosporidial drugs.
1990 Aug
Chloroquine-induced mania.
1991 Jul
Mefloquine.
1993 Jun 19
Effect of atovaquone and atovaquone drug combinations on prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in SCID mice.
1995 Apr
Adverse effects and compliance with mefloquine or proguanil antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.
1997
Atovaquone-proguanil versus chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune travellers: a randomised, double-blind study. Malarone International Study Team.
2000 Dec 2
Seizures after antimalarial medication in previously healthy persons.
2000 May-Jun
Application of higher throughput screening (HTS) inhibition assays to evaluate the interaction of antiparasitic drugs with cytochrome P450s.
2001 Jan
A trial of proguanil-dapsone in comparison with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the clearance of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Tanzania.
2001 Jul-Aug
[Many travellers suffer of side-effects of malaria prophylaxis].
2002 Jun 27
Severe mucocutaneous necrotizing vasculitis associated with the combination of chloroquine and proguanil.
2003
Essential requirements for substrate binding affinity and selectivity toward human CYP2 family enzymes.
2003 Jan 1
Prediction of genotoxicity of chemical compounds by statistical learning methods.
2005 Jun
Acute hepatitis and atovaquone/proguanil.
2005 Sep-Oct
The risk of antimalarials in patients with renal failure.
2007 Dec
In vitro atovaquone/proguanil susceptibility and characterization of the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum from different endemic regions of Thailand.
2008 Jan 28
Patents

Sample Use Guides

The daily dose should be taken at the same time each day with food or a milky drink. In the event of vomiting within 1 hour after dosing, a repeat dose should be taken.
Route of Administration: Oral
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
Record UNII
S61K3P7B2V
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
PROGUANIL
INN   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN  
Official Name English
PROGUANIL [INN]
Common Name English
PROGUANIL [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
CHLOROGUANIDE
Common Name English
PROGUANIL [VANDF]
Common Name English
IMIDODICARBONIMIDIC DIAMIDE, N-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-N'-(1-METHYLETHYL)-
Systematic Name English
CHLORGUANIDE
MI  
Common Name English
CHLORGUANIDE [MI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C271
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000000191
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175482
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
LIVERTOX 804
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC P01BB01
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C2153
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 6.5.3.2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC P01BB51
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000000191
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
MERCK INDEX
M3361
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
WIKIPEDIA
PROGUANIL
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01131
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB10079MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
2282
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
4923
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
2382
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
INN
418
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
500-92-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D002727
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C61907
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
S61K3P7B2V
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1377
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
207-915-6
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
500-92-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 03:06:49 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR
PLASMA
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PRODRUG
MAJOR
PLASMA