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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO.ClH
Molecular Weight 274.186
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE

SMILES

Cl.CNC1(CCCCC1=O)C2=C(Cl)C=CC=C2

InChI

InChIKey=VCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO.ClH/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14;/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3;1H

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.461
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.725
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity ( + / - )

Description
Curator's Comment: description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23432384

Ketamine (brand name Ketalar) is a cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Ketalar is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation; also, it is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine blocks NMDA receptors through an interaction with sites thought to be located within the ion channel pore region. However, the complete pharmacology of ketamine is more complex, and it is known to directly interact with a variety of other sites to varying degrees. Recently, it was shown that inclusion of the NR3B subunit does not alter the ketamine sensitivity of recombinant NR1/NR2 receptors expressed in oocytes. Likewise, 100 μM ketamine produced only weak inhibition of the glycine-induced current of NR1/NR3A/NR3B receptors. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970.

CNS Activity

Sources: Ketamine rapidly passes the blood–brain barrier (blood–effect site equilibration half-life, t1/2ke0, 1–10min) ensuring a rapid onset of acute analgesic effect

Originator

Curator's Comment: Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970. # in 1962 Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer)

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
KETALAR

Approved Use

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine hydrochloride is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide. Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Section.

Launch Date

1970
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2104 ng/mL
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
496 ng/mL
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
632 ng/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
148.3 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
163.6 mg × min/L
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
76.4 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
111.2 ng × min/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
125 min
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
120 min
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
123 min
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
100 min
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: major depressive disorder | bipolar disorder
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Other AEs: Dissociation...
Other AEs:
Dissociation
Sources:
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Other AEs: Dizziness, Hyperhidrosis...
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Other AEs: Numbness, Blurred vision...
Other AEs:
Numbness (below serious, 2 patients)
Blurred vision (below serious, 1 patient)
Decreased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
Irritable (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Flushing (below serious, 1 patient)
Hot flush (below serious, 1 patient)
Increased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
White blood cell count decreased (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Other AEs: Suicide attempt, Headache...
Other AEs:
Suicide attempt (serious, 1 patient)
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Dyspepsia (below serious, 2 patients)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Asthenia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dermatitis contact (below serious, 1 patient)
Fall (below serious, 1 patient)
Hepatic enzyme increased (below serious, 1 patient)
Loss of consciousness (below serious, 1 patient)
Malaise (below serious, 1 patient)
Overdose (below serious, 1 patient)
Presyncope (below serious, 1 patient)
Viral upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 1 patient)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Tooth abscess (below serious, 1 patient)
Cough (below serious, 1 patient)
Respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Vertigo (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Chest pain...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Chest pain (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Blood pressure increased (below serious, 2 patients)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dissociation (below serious, 1 patient)
Dizziness (below serious, 1 patient)
Hypertension (below serious, 1 patient)
Upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Other AEs: Pericardial effusion, Ventricular tachycardia...
Other AEs:
Pericardial effusion (serious, 1 patient)
Ventricular tachycardia (serious, 1 patient)
Delirium (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Dissociation
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: major depressive disorder | bipolar disorder
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Dizziness
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Feeling abnormal
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Hyperhidrosis
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Hypoaesthesia
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Nausea
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Somnolence
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Vomiting
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Blurred vision below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Decreased appetite below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Irritable below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Numbness below serious, 2 patients
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Flushing below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Hot flush below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Increased appetite below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
White blood cell count decreased below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 2 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Asthenia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dermatitis contact below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Fall below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Hepatic enzyme increased below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Loss of consciousness below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Malaise below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Overdose below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Presyncope below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Viral upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dyspepsia below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Suicide attempt serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Cough below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Headache below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Tooth abscess below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Vertigo below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Chest pain below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Dissociation below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dizziness below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Hypertension below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Blood pressure increased below serious, 2 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Delirium below serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Pericardial effusion serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Ventricular tachycardia serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Overview

Overview

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer






Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
yes [Ki 114.5 uM]
yes [Ki 22.7 uM]
yes [Ki 225.7 uM]
Drug as victimTox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The effects of ketamine and of Innovar anesthesia on digitalis tolerance in dogs.
1975 Jan-Feb
Ketamine-pancuronium-narcotic technic for cardiovascular surgery in infants--a comparative study.
1975 Nov-Dec
Electroencephalographic study of children during ketamine anesthesia.
1976
Effects of halothane anesthesia on the biodisposition of ketamine in rats.
1976 Mar
Venodilator effects of adenosine triphosphate and sodium nitroprusside; comparisons during controlled hypotension.
1987 Sep 1
Emergence delirium following oral ketamine.
1992 Sep
Interaction of ketamine with mu2 opioid receptors in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
1999
Interindividual differences in the analgesic response to ketamine in chronic orofacial pain.
2001
Intravenous midazolam significantly enhances the lethal effect of thiopental but not that of ketamine in mice.
2001 Dec
NMDA receptor blockade prevents nitroglycerin-induced headaches.
2001 Jul-Aug
Precordial compression without airway management induces lung injury in the rodent cardiac arrest model with central apnea.
2001 Nov
Clonidine versus ketamine to prevent tourniquet pain during intravenous regional anesthesia with lidocaine.
2001 Nov-Dec
Induction of proteinuric chronic glomerular disease in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) by intracardiac injection of doxorubicin hydrochloride.
2001 Sep
[Pharmacological modulation of the effects induced by ketamine at subanesthetic doses].
2001 Sep-Oct
Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in nociception in the cyclophosphamide-induced vesical pain model in the conscious rat.
2002
Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with recombinant human M1-M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells.
2002 Dec
Concentration-effect relationships for intravenous alfentanil and ketamine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia.
2002 Jan
Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture).
2002 May
The role of ketamine in preventing fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia and subsequent acute morphine tolerance.
2002 May
Search of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs.
2002 Nov-Dec
Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain.
2003
Schizophrenia, VIII: pharmacologic models.
2003 Dec
Ketamine for refractory status epilepticus: a case of possible ketamine-induced neurotoxicity.
2003 Feb
Cold allodynia and hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain: the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine--a double-blind, cross-over comparison with alfentanil and placebo.
2003 Feb
[Anaesthesia for caesarean section. Comparison of two general anaesthetic regimens and spinal anaesthesia].
2003 Jan
Angina pain precipitated by a continuous subcutaneous infusion of ketamine.
2003 Jan
Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of ketamine on postoperative morphine consumption in children following appendicectomy.
2003 Jun
Effects of different subanaesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on psychopathology and binocular depth inversion in man.
2003 Mar
The effect of variable-dose diazepam on dreaming and emergence phenomena in 400 cases of ketamine-fentanyl anaesthesia.
2003 Sep
The neuromatrix and the epileptic brain: behavioral and learning preservation in limbic epileptic rats treated with ketamine but not acepromazine.
2004 Feb
Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers.
2004 Jan
[Expression of HSP70 induced by ketamine in the hippocampus of rat at different ages].
2004 Jul
Influence of different anaesthetics on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in rat spleen.
2004 Jul
Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.
2004 May
Preemptive ketamine during general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
2004 Oct
Caudal analgesia in children: S(+)-ketamine vs S(+)-ketamine plus clonidine.
2004 Oct
Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction.
2005 Jan
Ketamine and postoperative pain--a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials.
2005 Jan
Safety of mixture of morphine with ketamine for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia: an audit with 1026 patients.
2005 Jul
Naloxone increases ketamine-induced hyperactivity in the open field in female rats.
2005 Jul
Ketamine and amphetamine both enhance synaptic transmission in the amygdala-nucleus accumbens pathway but with different time-courses.
2005 Jul
Severe refractory status epilepticus owing to presumed encephalitis.
2005 Mar
Characterization of morphine-induced hyperalgesia in male and female rats.
2005 Mar
Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor epsilon1 subunit gene disruption of the action of general anesthetic drugs in mice.
2005 Mar
Ketamine inhibits LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in an equine macrophage cell line.
2005 Mar-Apr
Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review (Cochrane review).
2005 Nov
[Comparison of the suppressive effects of tramadol and low-dose ketamine on the patients with postoperative hyperalgesia after remifentanil-based anaesthesia].
2005 Oct
Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.
2005 Oct
Ischemic brain damage after ketamine and xylazine treatment in a young laboratory monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
2005 Sep
Induction of rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 by ketamine and its toxicological implications.
2005 Sep
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Intravenous Route: The initial dose of Ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride injection) administered intravenously may range from 1 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg (0.5 to 2 mg/lb). The average amount required to produce five to ten minutes of surgical anesthesia has been 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb). Intramuscular Route: The initial dose of Ketalar administered intramuscularly may range from 6.5 to 13 mg/kg (3 to 6 mg/lb). A dose of 10 mg/kg (5 mg/lb) will usually produce 12 to 25 minutes of surgical anesthesia.
Route of Administration: Other
Primary cultures of cortical neurons treated with ketamine (10 μM-10mM) at 3 days-in vitro (3 DIV) displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in expanded growth cones
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:35:08 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:35:08 GMT 2023
Record UNII
O18YUO0I83
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE
EP   GREEN BOOK   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
USAN  
Official Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [MI]
Common Name English
CI-581
Code English
CN-523722
Code English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-, HYDROCHLORIDE (1:1)
Systematic Name English
VETALAR
Brand Name English
2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)CYCLOHEXANONE HYDROCHLORIDE
Systematic Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
KETAMINE (AS HYDROCHLORIDE)
Common Name English
SPECIAL K
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [EP IMPURITY]
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USAN]
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
KETAMINE HCL
Common Name English
CL 369
Code English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE CIII
USP-RS  
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE CIII [USP-RS]
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
(±)-2-(O-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)CYCLOHEXANONE HYDROCHLORIDE
Systematic Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
CN-52372-2
Code English
KETAMINI HYDROCHLORIDUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [VANDF]
Common Name English
KETALAR
Brand Name English
CL-369
Code English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
CN-52,372-2
Code English
KETASET
Brand Name English
Ketamine hydrochloride [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(O-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-, HYDROCHLORIDE, (±)-
Common Name English
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE [JAN]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 860021
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 901422
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
DEA NO. 7285
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
CFR 21 CFR 522.1222
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
CFR 21 CFR 522.1222B
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C245
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG BANK
DBSALT000396
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C29142
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
100477-73-4
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
SUPERSEDED
CHEBI
6121
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB02830MIG
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
79499-52-8
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
SUPERSEDED
DAILYMED
O18YUO0I83
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
650657
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
217-484-6
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
203184
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
ChEMBL
CHEMBL742
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1356009
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
81771-21-3
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
SUPERSEDED
CAS
96448-41-8
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
SUPERSEDED
PUBCHEM
15851
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
1867-66-9
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID4040137
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m6613
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
FDA UNII
O18YUO0I83
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY Description: A white, crystalline powder; odour, characteristic. Solubility: Freely soluble in water and methanol R; soluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS; practically insoluble in ether R. Category: General anaesthetic. Storage: Ketamine hydrochloride should be kept in a well-closed container. Requirement: Ketamine hydrochloride contains not less than 98.5% and not more than the equivalent of 101.0% of C13H16ClNO,HCl, calculated with reference to the dried substance.
SMS_ID
100000091352
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
42551-62-2
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:35:09 GMT 2023
SUPERSEDED
Related Record Type Details
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (HPLC)
USP
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
Related Record Type Details
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY