U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.7257
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of KETAMINE

SMILES

CNC1(CCCCC1=O)c2ccccc2Cl

InChI

InChIKey=YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.7257
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity ( + / - )

Description
Curator's Comment:: description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23432384

Ketamine (brand name Ketalar) is a cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Ketalar is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation; also, it is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine blocks NMDA receptors through an interaction with sites thought to be located within the ion channel pore region. However, the complete pharmacology of ketamine is more complex, and it is known to directly interact with a variety of other sites to varying degrees. Recently, it was shown that inclusion of the NR3B subunit does not alter the ketamine sensitivity of recombinant NR1/NR2 receptors expressed in oocytes. Likewise, 100 μM ketamine produced only weak inhibition of the glycine-induced current of NR1/NR3A/NR3B receptors. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970.

CNS Activity

Sources: Ketamine rapidly passes the blood–brain barrier (blood–effect site equilibration half-life, t1/2ke0, 1–10min) ensuring a rapid onset of acute analgesic effect

Originator

Curator's Comment:: Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970. # in 1962 Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer)

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
KETALAR

Approved Use

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine hydrochloride is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide. Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Section.

Launch Date

4.2336E9
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2104 ng/mL
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
496 ng/mL
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
632 ng/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
148.3 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
163.6 mg × min/L
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
76.4 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
111.2 ng × min/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
125 min
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
120 min
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
123 min
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
100 min
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: major depressive disorder | bipolar disorder
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Other AEs: Dissociation...
Other AEs:
Dissociation
Sources:
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Other AEs: Dizziness, Hyperhidrosis...
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Other AEs: Numbness, Blurred vision...
Other AEs:
Numbness (below serious, 2 patients)
Blurred vision (below serious, 1 patient)
Decreased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
Irritable (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Flushing (below serious, 1 patient)
Hot flush (below serious, 1 patient)
Increased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
White blood cell count decreased (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Other AEs: Suicide attempt, Headache...
Other AEs:
Suicide attempt (serious, 1 patient)
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Dyspepsia (below serious, 2 patients)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Asthenia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dermatitis contact (below serious, 1 patient)
Fall (below serious, 1 patient)
Hepatic enzyme increased (below serious, 1 patient)
Loss of consciousness (below serious, 1 patient)
Malaise (below serious, 1 patient)
Overdose (below serious, 1 patient)
Presyncope (below serious, 1 patient)
Viral upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 1 patient)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Tooth abscess (below serious, 1 patient)
Cough (below serious, 1 patient)
Respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Vertigo (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Chest pain...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Chest pain (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Blood pressure increased (below serious, 2 patients)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dissociation (below serious, 1 patient)
Dizziness (below serious, 1 patient)
Hypertension (below serious, 1 patient)
Upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Other AEs: Pericardial effusion, Ventricular tachycardia...
Other AEs:
Pericardial effusion (serious, 1 patient)
Ventricular tachycardia (serious, 1 patient)
Delirium (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Dissociation
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: major depressive disorder | bipolar disorder
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Dizziness
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Feeling abnormal
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Hyperhidrosis
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Hypoaesthesia
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Nausea
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Somnolence
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Vomiting
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
n = 34
Blurred vision below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Decreased appetite below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Irritable below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Numbness below serious, 2 patients
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 19
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Flushing below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Hot flush below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Increased appetite below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
White blood cell count decreased below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 2 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Asthenia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dermatitis contact below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Fall below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Hepatic enzyme increased below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Loss of consciousness below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Malaise below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Overdose below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Presyncope below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Viral upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dyspepsia below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Suicide attempt serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Cough below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Headache below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Tooth abscess below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Vertigo below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Chest pain below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Depression and Anxiety|Cancer
Population Size: 3
Sources:
Dissociation below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Dizziness below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Hypertension below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Blood pressure increased below serious, 2 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 20
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Treatment-Resistant Depression
Population Size: 20
Sources:
Delirium below serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Pericardial effusion serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Ventricular tachycardia serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous (total daily dose)
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 10
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Sepsis
Population Size: 10
Sources:
Overview

Overview

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer






Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
yes [Ki 114.5 uM]
yes [Ki 22.7 uM]
yes [Ki 225.7 uM]
Drug as victimTox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
[Convulsive mechanism of ketamine anesthesia].
1975 Aug
The effects of ketamine and of Innovar anesthesia on digitalis tolerance in dogs.
1975 Jan-Feb
Ketamine-pancuronium-narcotic technic for cardiovascular surgery in infants--a comparative study.
1975 Nov-Dec
Cognitive functions after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: changes during silent period precede appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures.
1999 Sep
Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia.
1999 Winter
Differential effects of systemically administered ketamine and lidocaine on dynamic and static hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in humans.
2000 Feb
Long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by fentanyl in rats: preventive effect of ketamine.
2000 Feb
Dissociation of ketamine effects on rule acquisition and rule implementation: possible relevance to NMDA receptor contributions to executive cognitive functions.
2000 Jan 15
Anesthesia induced retrograde amnesia is ameliorated by ephrinA5-IgG in mice: EphA receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in mammalian memory.
2000 Mar
Midazolam attenuates ketamine-induced abnormal perception and thought process but not mood changes.
2000 Sep
Intravenous midazolam significantly enhances the lethal effect of thiopental but not that of ketamine in mice.
2001 Dec
Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous alfentanil and ketamine on peripheral neurosensory thresholds, allodynia and hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain.
2001 Mar
Induction of proteinuric chronic glomerular disease in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) by intracardiac injection of doxorubicin hydrochloride.
2001 Sep
[Pharmacological modulation of the effects induced by ketamine at subanesthetic doses].
2001 Sep-Oct
Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with recombinant human M1-M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells.
2002 Dec
Cognitive impairment after small-dose ketamine isomers in comparison to equianalgesic racemic ketamine in human volunteers.
2002 Feb
Search of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs.
2002 Nov-Dec
Prospective age-based comparison of behavioral reactions occurring after ketamine sedation in the ED.
2002 Sep
Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain.
2003
Schizophrenia, VIII: pharmacologic models.
2003 Dec
Cold allodynia and hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain: the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine--a double-blind, cross-over comparison with alfentanil and placebo.
2003 Feb
[Anaesthesia for caesarean section. Comparison of two general anaesthetic regimens and spinal anaesthesia].
2003 Jan
Angina pain precipitated by a continuous subcutaneous infusion of ketamine.
2003 Jan
Effects of the 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on mismatch negativity generation and AX-continuous performance task: implications for the neuropharmacology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
2003 Jan
Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of ketamine on postoperative morphine consumption in children following appendicectomy.
2003 Jun
Pretreatment with intravenous ketamine reduces propofol injection pain.
2003 Nov
Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers.
2004 Jan
Ketamine impairs response inhibition and is positively reinforcing in healthy volunteers: a dose-response study.
2004 Mar
Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.
2004 May
Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction.
2005 Jan
Participation of adenosine system in the ketamine-induced motor activity in mice.
2005 Jan-Feb
Ketamine and amphetamine both enhance synaptic transmission in the amygdala-nucleus accumbens pathway but with different time-courses.
2005 Jul
Adverse events associated with procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department: a comparison of common parenteral drugs.
2005 Jun
Characterization of morphine-induced hyperalgesia in male and female rats.
2005 Mar
Ketamine inhibits LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in an equine macrophage cell line.
2005 Mar-Apr
Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review (Cochrane review).
2005 Nov
[Comparison of the suppressive effects of tramadol and low-dose ketamine on the patients with postoperative hyperalgesia after remifentanil-based anaesthesia].
2005 Oct
Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.
2005 Oct
Ischemic brain damage after ketamine and xylazine treatment in a young laboratory monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
2005 Sep
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Intravenous Route: The initial dose of Ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride injection) administered intravenously may range from 1 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg (0.5 to 2 mg/lb). The average amount required to produce five to ten minutes of surgical anesthesia has been 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb). Intramuscular Route: The initial dose of Ketalar administered intramuscularly may range from 6.5 to 13 mg/kg (3 to 6 mg/lb). A dose of 10 mg/kg (5 mg/lb) will usually produce 12 to 25 minutes of surgical anesthesia.
Route of Administration: Other
Primary cultures of cortical neurons treated with ketamine (10 μM-10mM) at 3 days-in vitro (3 DIV) displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in expanded growth cones
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Record UNII
690G0D6V8H
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
KETAMINE
HSDB   INN   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN  
Official Name English
NSC-70151
Code English
PMI-150
Code English
KETAFOL COMPONENT KETAMINE
Brand Name English
VETAKET
Brand Name English
CALYPSOL
Brand Name English
TEKAM
Brand Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-, (+/-)-
Systematic Name English
(+/-)-2-(O-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)CYCLOHEXANONE
Common Name English
(+/-)-KETAMINE
Common Name English
IMALGENE 1000
Brand Name English
KETASOL 100
Brand Name English
ANAKET V
Brand Name English
KETAMINE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
KETAMINE [VANDF]
Common Name English
NARKETAN
Brand Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-
Systematic Name English
KETAMINE [MI]
Common Name English
URSOTAMIN
Brand Name English
CLORKETAM 1000
Brand Name English
DL-KETAMINE
Common Name English
KETAMINE [INN]
Common Name English
KETAMINE [HSDB]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C245
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 522.1222A
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175681
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 669318
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 812221
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 288809
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QN01AX03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
DEA NO. 7285
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175975
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
LIVERTOX 531
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
HSDB
2180
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
2156
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01221
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
3821
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08365MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1523
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
6740-88-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL742
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
229-804-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
33643-45-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
CAS
100477-72-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
IUPHAR
4233
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
6130
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
FDA UNII
690G0D6V8H
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
79499-51-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
NCI_THESAURUS
C61797
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D007649
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Ketamine
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
6740-88-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M6613
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
WIKIPEDIA
KETAMINE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
TARGET->PARTIAL AGONIST
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
BINDER->LIGAND
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE LESS ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
NMDA receptor (rat brain) binding assay
IN-VITRO
Ki
METABOLITE LESS ACTIVE -> PARENT
NMDA receptor (rat brain) binding assay
IN-VITRO
Ki
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Name Property Type Amount Referenced Substance Defining Parameters References
Biological Half-life PHARMACOKINETIC