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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.7257
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of KETAMINE

SMILES

CNC1(CCCCC1=O)c2ccccc2Cl

InChI

InChIKey=YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.7257
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity ( + / - )

Description
Curator's Comment:: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23432384

Ketamine (brand name Ketalar) is a cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Ketalar is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation; also, it is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine blocks NMDA receptors through an interaction with sites thought to be located within the ion channel pore region. However, the complete pharmacology of ketamine is more complex, and it is known to directly interact with a variety of other sites to varying degrees. Recently, it was shown that inclusion of the NR3B subunit does not alter the ketamine sensitivity of recombinant NR1/NR2 receptors expressed in oocytes. Likewise, 100 μM ketamine produced only weak inhibition of the glycine-induced current of NR1/NR3A/NR3B receptors. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970.

CNS Activity

Sources: Ketamine rapidly passes the blood–brain barrier (blood–effect site equilibration half-life, t1/2ke0, 1–10min) ensuring a rapid onset of acute analgesic effect

Originator

Curator's Comment:: Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 by Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer) as an alternative anesthetic to phencyclidine. It was first used in humans in 1965 by Corssen and Domino and was introduced into clinical practice by 1970. # in 1962 Calvin Stevens at Parke-Davis Co (now Pfizer)

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
KETALAR

Approved Use

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine hydrochloride is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide. Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Section.

Launch Date

4233600000
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2104 ng/mL
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
496 ng/mL
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
632 ng/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
148.3 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
163.6 mg × min/L
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
76.4 mg × min/L
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
111.2 ng × min/mL
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
125 min
3 mg/kg single, intravenous
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
120 min
9 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 9 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
123 min
3 mg/kg single, nasal
dose: 3 mg/kg
route of administration: Nasal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
100 min
9 mg single, rectal
dose: 9 mg
route of administration: Rectal
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
KETAMINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: CHILD
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Other AEs: Dissociation...
Other AEs:
Dissociation
Sources:
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Other AEs: Dizziness, Hyperhidrosis...
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Numbness, Blurred vision...
Other AEs:
Numbness (below serious, 2 patients)
Blurred vision (below serious, 1 patient)
Decreased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
Irritable (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Flushing (below serious, 1 patient)
Hot flush (below serious, 1 patient)
Increased appetite (below serious, 1 patient)
White blood cell count decreased (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Suicide attempt, Headache...
Other AEs:
Suicide attempt (serious, 1 patient)
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Dyspepsia (below serious, 2 patients)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Asthenia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dermatitis contact (below serious, 1 patient)
Fall (below serious, 1 patient)
Hepatic enzyme increased (below serious, 1 patient)
Loss of consciousness (below serious, 1 patient)
Malaise (below serious, 1 patient)
Overdose (below serious, 1 patient)
Presyncope (below serious, 1 patient)
Viral upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 1 patient)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Depression (below serious, 1 patient)
Diarrhea (below serious, 1 patient)
Pain in extremity (below serious, 1 patient)
Suicidal ideation (below serious, 1 patient)
Tooth abscess (below serious, 1 patient)
Cough (below serious, 1 patient)
Respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Vertigo (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Chest pain...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Chest pain (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Headache (below serious, 3 patients)
Nausea (below serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (below serious, 1 patient)
Blood pressure increased (below serious, 2 patients)
Insomnia (below serious, 1 patient)
Poor quality sleep (below serious, 1 patient)
Tachycardia (below serious, 1 patient)
Dissociation (below serious, 1 patient)
Dizziness (below serious, 1 patient)
Hypertension (below serious, 1 patient)
Upper respiratory tract infection (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Other AEs: Pericardial effusion, Ventricular tachycardia...
Other AEs:
Pericardial effusion (serious, 1 patient)
Ventricular tachycardia (serious, 1 patient)
Delirium (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Dissociation
0.5 mg/kg 1 times / day single, intravenous
Studied dose
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-65 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-65 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Dizziness
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Feeling abnormal
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Hyperhidrosis
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Hypoaesthesia
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Nausea
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Somnolence
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Vomiting
14 mg 8 times / day single, intranasal
Highest studied dose
healthy, adult
Blurred vision below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Decreased appetite below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Irritable below serious, 1 patient
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Numbness below serious, 2 patients
50 mg single, intranasal
Dose: 50 mg
Route: intranasal
Route: single
Dose: 50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Flushing below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Hot flush below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Increased appetite below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
White blood cell count decreased below serious, 1 patient
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 2 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
0.1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Asthenia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Dermatitis contact below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Fall below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Hepatic enzyme increased below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Loss of consciousness below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Malaise below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Overdose below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Presyncope below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Viral upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Dyspepsia below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Suicide attempt serious, 1 patient
0.2 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.2 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Cough below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Depression below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Headache below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Pain in extremity below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Suicidal ideation below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Tooth abscess below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Vertigo below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Chest pain below serious, 1 patient
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
0.5 mg/kg single, oral
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 0.5 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Dissociation below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Dizziness below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Hypertension below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Poor quality sleep below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Tachycardia below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Upper respiratory tract infection below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Vomiting below serious, 1 patient
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Blood pressure increased below serious, 2 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Headache below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Nausea below serious, 3 patients
1 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Delirium below serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Pericardial effusion serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Ventricular tachycardia serious, 1 patient
2.55 mg/kg single, intravenous
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 2.55 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Sources:
Overview

Overview

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer






Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
likely
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Compared ketamine group with the control group, there were no significant difference for AUC of metroprolol, omeprazole and tolbutamide, it show that the ketamine may not induce or inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 enzyme
yes [Ki 114.5 uM]
yes [Ki 22.7 uM]
yes [Ki 225.7 uM]
Drug as victimTox targets

Tox targets

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Electroencephalographic study of children during ketamine anesthesia.
1976
Effects of halothane anesthesia on the biodisposition of ketamine in rats.
1976 Mar
Venodilator effects of adenosine triphosphate and sodium nitroprusside; comparisons during controlled hypotension.
1987 Sep 1
Emergence delirium following oral ketamine.
1992 Sep
Interaction of ketamine with mu2 opioid receptors in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
1999
Search of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs.
2002 Nov-Dec
Schizophrenia, VIII: pharmacologic models.
2003 Dec
Ketamine for refractory status epilepticus: a case of possible ketamine-induced neurotoxicity.
2003 Feb
Cold allodynia and hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain: the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine--a double-blind, cross-over comparison with alfentanil and placebo.
2003 Feb
[Anaesthesia for caesarean section. Comparison of two general anaesthetic regimens and spinal anaesthesia].
2003 Jan
Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of ketamine on postoperative morphine consumption in children following appendicectomy.
2003 Jun
Effects of different subanaesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on psychopathology and binocular depth inversion in man.
2003 Mar
Pretreatment with intravenous ketamine reduces propofol injection pain.
2003 Nov
Preprocedural fasting state and adverse events in children undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department.
2003 Nov
Synergistic antinociceptive effects of ketamine and morphine in the orofacial capsaicin test in the rat.
2003 Oct
The effect of variable-dose diazepam on dreaming and emergence phenomena in 400 cases of ketamine-fentanyl anaesthesia.
2003 Sep
Phenyl-tetrazolyl acetophenones: discovery of positive allosteric potentiatiors for the metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor.
2004 Aug 26
The neuromatrix and the epileptic brain: behavioral and learning preservation in limbic epileptic rats treated with ketamine but not acepromazine.
2004 Feb
Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers.
2004 Jan
[Expression of HSP70 induced by ketamine in the hippocampus of rat at different ages].
2004 Jul
Influence of different anaesthetics on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in rat spleen.
2004 Jul
Influence of O(3)/O(2)-pneumoperitoneum as an oxidative stressor on duration of anaesthesia, loss of different reflexes and cytokine mRNA expression.
2004 Jul
The development and maintenance of human visceral pain hypersensitivity is dependent on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.
2004 Mar
Ketamine impairs response inhibition and is positively reinforcing in healthy volunteers: a dose-response study.
2004 Mar
Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.
2004 May
Postanesthetic cerebellar dysfunction in cats.
2004 May-Jun
Preemptive ketamine during general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
2004 Oct
Intravenous ketamine infusion as an adjuvant to morphine in a 2-year-old with severe cancer pain from metastatic neuroblastoma.
2004 Oct
Caudal analgesia in children: S(+)-ketamine vs S(+)-ketamine plus clonidine.
2004 Oct
Ketamine reduces lidocaine-induced seizures in mice.
2005 Aug
Ketamine pretreatment with venous occlusion attenuates pain on injection with propofol.
2005 Jan
Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction.
2005 Jan
Ketamine and postoperative pain--a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials.
2005 Jan
Participation of adenosine system in the ketamine-induced motor activity in mice.
2005 Jan-Feb
Remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia and its prevention with small-dose ketamine.
2005 Jul
Safety of mixture of morphine with ketamine for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia: an audit with 1026 patients.
2005 Jul
Naloxone increases ketamine-induced hyperactivity in the open field in female rats.
2005 Jul
Ketamine and amphetamine both enhance synaptic transmission in the amygdala-nucleus accumbens pathway but with different time-courses.
2005 Jul
Adverse events associated with procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department: a comparison of common parenteral drugs.
2005 Jun
The anesthetics nitrous oxide and ketamine are more neurotoxic to old than to young rat brain.
2005 Jun
Severe refractory status epilepticus owing to presumed encephalitis.
2005 Mar
Characterization of morphine-induced hyperalgesia in male and female rats.
2005 Mar
Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor epsilon1 subunit gene disruption of the action of general anesthetic drugs in mice.
2005 Mar
Ketamine inhibits LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in an equine macrophage cell line.
2005 Mar-Apr
Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review (Cochrane review).
2005 Nov
Cortical glutamate-dopamine interaction and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms in man.
2005 Nov
[Comparison of the suppressive effects of tramadol and low-dose ketamine on the patients with postoperative hyperalgesia after remifentanil-based anaesthesia].
2005 Oct
Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.
2005 Oct
Ischemic brain damage after ketamine and xylazine treatment in a young laboratory monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
2005 Sep
Induction of rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 by ketamine and its toxicological implications.
2005 Sep
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Intravenous Route:
Route of Administration: Other
Primary cultures of cortical neurons treated with ketamine (10 μM-10mM) at 3 days-in vitro (3 DIV) displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in expanded growth cones
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Record UNII
690G0D6V8H
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
KETAMINE
HSDB   INN   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN  
Official Name English
NSC-70151
Code English
PMI-150
Code English
KETAFOL COMPONENT KETAMINE
Brand Name English
VETAKET
Brand Name English
CALYPSOL
Brand Name English
TEKAM
Brand Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-, (+/-)-
Systematic Name English
(+/-)-2-(O-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)CYCLOHEXANONE
Common Name English
(+/-)-KETAMINE
Common Name English
IMALGENE 1000
Brand Name English
KETASOL 100
Brand Name English
ANAKET V
Brand Name English
KETAMINE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
KETAMINE [VANDF]
Common Name English
NARKETAN
Brand Name English
CYCLOHEXANONE, 2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)-
Systematic Name English
KETAMINE [MI]
Common Name English
URSOTAMIN
Brand Name English
CLORKETAM 1000
Brand Name English
DL-KETAMINE
Common Name English
KETAMINE [INN]
Common Name English
KETAMINE [HSDB]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C245
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 522.1222A
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175681
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 669318
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 812221
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 288809
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QN01AX03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
DEA NO. 7285
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175975
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX03
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
LIVERTOX 531
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
HSDB
2180
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
2156
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01221
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
3821
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08365MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1523
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
6740-88-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL742
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
229-804-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
33643-45-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
CAS
100477-72-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
IUPHAR
4233
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
6130
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
FDA UNII
690G0D6V8H
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
79499-51-7
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
NCI_THESAURUS
C61797
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D007649
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Ketamine
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
6740-88-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M6613
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
WIKIPEDIA
KETAMINE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:29:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
TARGET->PARTIAL AGONIST
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
BINDER->LIGAND
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE LESS ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
NMDA receptor (rat brain) binding assay
IN-VITRO
Ki
METABOLITE LESS ACTIVE -> PARENT
NMDA receptor (rat brain) binding assay
IN-VITRO
Ki
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
MAJOR METABOLITE IN PLASMA
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Name Property Type Amount Referenced Substance Defining Parameters References
Biological Half-life PHARMACOKINETIC