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Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C18H29O2.Na
Molecular Weight 300.4114
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 3
Charge 0







Molecular Formula C18H29O2
Molecular Weight 277.4217
Charge -1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 3
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula Na
Molecular Weight 22.9898
Charge 1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an 18-carbon omega-3 essential fatty acid, is the precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA cannot be synthesized by humans and therefore must be entirely acquired from exogenous sources. Evidence for the essentiality of ALA was first provided by a study showing that ALA supplementation reversed the abnormal neurologic signs observed in a 6-year-old girl who suffered from sensory loss and visual complications. Most of the ALA is catabolized via beta-oxidation for energy generation, and a small proportion of it undergoes conversion to produce another two potent members of omega-3 PUFA family: EPA and DHA. Delta 6 desaturase (D6D) enzyme is responsible the conversion of ALA to DHA. Although not conclusive, it was suggested, that the benefits associated with ALA seem to stem mainly from EPA and DHA, and as major consequence of ALA deficiency it appears that EPA and DHA are not adequately produced.

Approval Year



Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: O60427|||Q96SV3
Gene ID: 3992.0
Gene Symbol: FADS1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: O95864
Gene ID: 9415.0
Gene Symbol: FADS2
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)


ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct

Approved Use

Intralipid® 10% is indicated as a source of calories and essential fatty acids for patients requiring parenteral nutrition for extended periods of time (usually for more than 5 days) and as a source of essential fatty acids for prevention of EFAD.

Launch Date



Glucose, insulin and platelet fatty acids following myocardial infarction: an association with infarct size.
1987 Jul-Aug
[Biological effects on premature neonates of a milk formula enriched with alpha-linolenic acid: a multicenter study].
1994 Feb
Equilibrium constants for the binding of fatty acids with fatty acid-binding proteins from adipocyte, intestine, heart, and liver measured with the fluorescent probe ADIFAB.
1994 Sep 30
Fatty acids and fibrates are potent inducers of transcription of the phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in adipocytes.
1995 Dec 1
Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults.
1995 Jan
High susceptibility to paraquat-driven lipid peroxidation of cultured hepatocytes loaded with linolenic acid.
1995 Jul
Supplementation with flaxseed oil versus sunflowerseed oil in healthy young men consuming a low fat diet: effects on platelet composition and function.
1995 Mar
Preferential uptake of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by isolated human placental membranes.
1996 Feb 9
Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults.
1999 Jul
Evidence for direct binding of fatty acids and eicosanoids to human peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha.
1999 Jul 14
Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men.
1999 May
Abundant expression of uncoupling protein-2 in the small intestine: up-regulation by dietary fish oil and fibrates.
2001 Jan 15
Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease.
2002 Nov 19
Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica.
2003 Apr 1
Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40.
2003 Mar 13
Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
2004 Apr
Alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer. What is the evidence?
2004 Apr
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are FXR ligands and differentially regulate expression of FXR targets.
2004 Aug
Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces COX-2 expression and induces apoptosis of hepatoma cells.
2004 Feb
Effect of chemical penetration enhancer and iontophoresis on the in vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of insulin through porcine epidermis.
Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120.
2005 Jan
Specificity of receptor-ligand interactions and their effect on dimerisation as observed by electrospray mass spectrometry: bile acids form stable adducts to the RXRalpha.
2005 Nov
Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on intramuscular long-chain fatty Acyl-CoAs and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients.
2005 Nov
Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha.
2006 Aug
Prostate tissue and leukocyte levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in men with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer.
2006 Feb
PPARalpha activators and fasting induce the expression of adipose differentiation-related protein in liver.
2006 May
Differential effects of long-chain fatty acids and clofibrate on gene expression profiles in cardiomyocytes.
2008 Jan
Alpha-linolenic acid is a potent neuroprotective agent against soman-induced neuropathology.
2012 Oct
Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice.
2013 Jul 5
Repeated systemic administration of the nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid exerts neuroprotective efficacy, an antidepressant effect and improves cognitive performance when given after soman exposure.
2015 Dec
Association of serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity and RBC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with flow-mediated dilation in healthy, young Hispanic cigarette smokers.
2015 Jan 22

Sample Use Guides

It was examined the effect of the oral consumption of α-Linolenic acid (ALA) on blood levels of BDNF and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in healthy adult humans. 30 healthy volunteers, 15 men and 15 women, were selected randomly. During the experiment, each individual was given 3 oral capsules of flaxseed oil, containing 500mg of alpha linolenic acid, daily for one week. Then, plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and MDA were tested.
Route of Administration: Oral
It was examined the effects of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) in the presence of PSO on subsequent embryo development and quality, and the cellular mechanisms that might be involved. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were supplemented during IVM with ALA (50 μM), PSO (425 μM), or PSO+ALA. Compared with FFA-free controls (P < 0.05), PSO increased embryo fragmentation and decreased good quality embryos on Day 2 post-fertilization. Day 7 blastocyst rate was also reduced. Day 8 blastocysts had lower cell counts and higher apoptosis but normal metabolic profile. It was found, that adding ALA in the presence of PSO normalised embryo fragmentation, cleavage, blastocyst rates and blastocyst quality compared to controls (P > 0.05). Combined treatment with ALA also reduced CC apoptosis, partially recovered CC expansion, abrogated the reduction in MMP in the CCs but not in the oocytes, and reduced BiP and HSP70 expression in CCs, compared with PSO only (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA supplementation protected oocyte developmental capacity under lipotoxic conditions mainly by protecting cumulus cell viability.
Substance Class Chemical
by admin
on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023
by admin
on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023
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Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 01:51:42 UTC 2023
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