U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS
Phylloquinone is often called vitamin K1 or phytonadione. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stable to air and moisture but decomposes in sunlight. It is found naturally in a wide variety of green plants. Phylloquinone is also an antidote for coumatetralyl. Vitamin K is needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation. MEPHYTON (Phytonadione tablets) are indicated in the following coagulation disorders which are due to faulty formation of factors II, VII, IX and X when caused by vitamin K deficiency or interference with vitamin K activity: anticoagulant-induced prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to antibacterial therapy; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to administration of salicylates; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to obstructive jaundice or biliary fistulas but only if bile salts are administered concurrently, since otherwise the oral vitamin K will not be absorbed. MEPHYTON tablets possess the same type and degree of activity as does naturally-occurring vitamin K, which is necessary for the production via the liver of active prothrombin (factor II), proconvertin (factor VII), plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX), and Stuart factor (factor X). The prothrombin test is sensitive to the levels of three of these four factors II, VII, and X. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the gamma-carboxylase enzymes, which catalyze the posttranslational gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in inactive hepatic precursors of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X. Gamma-carboxylation converts these inactive precursors into active coagulation factors, which are secreted by hepatocytes into the blood. Supplementing with Phylloquinone results in a relief of vitamin K deficiency symptoms, which include easy bruisability, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, menorrhagia and hematuria. Oral phytonadione is adequately absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract only if bile salts are present. After absorption, phytonadione is initially concentrated in the liver, but the concentration declines rapidly. Very little vitamin K accumulates in tissues. Little is known about the metabolic fate of vitamin K. Almost no free unmetabolized vitamin K appears in bile or urine. In normal animals and humans, phytonadione is virtually devoid of pharmacodynamic activity. However, in animals and humans deficient in vitamin K, the pharmacological action of vitamin K is related to its normal physiological function; that is, to promote the hepatic biosynthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. MEPHYTON tablets generally exert their effect within 6 to 10 hours.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P38435
Gene ID: 2677.0
Gene Symbol: GGCX
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Target ID: Q9BQB6
Gene ID: 79001.0
Gene Symbol: VKORC1
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
VITAMIN K1

Approved Use

Vitamin K1 Injection is indicated in: (1) anticoagulant-induced prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; (2) prophylaxis and therapy of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn; (3) hypoprothrombinemia due to antibacterial therapy; (3) hypoprothrombinemia secondary to factors limiting absorption or synthesis of vitamin K, e.g., obstructive jaundice, biliary fistula, sprue, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, intestinal resection, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, and regional enteritis; (4) other drug-induced hypoprothrombinemia where it is definitely shown that the result is due to interference with vitamin K metabolism, e.g., salicylates.

Launch Date

4.27766415E11
Primary
VITAMIN K1

Approved Use

Vitamin K1 Injection is indicated in: (1) anticoagulant-induced prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; (2) prophylaxis and therapy of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn; (3) hypoprothrombinemia due to antibacterial therapy; (3) hypoprothrombinemia secondary to factors limiting absorption or synthesis of vitamin K, e.g., obstructive jaundice, biliary fistula, sprue, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, intestinal resection, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, and regional enteritis; (4) other drug-induced hypoprothrombinemia where it is definitely shown that the result is due to interference with vitamin K metabolism, e.g., salicylates.

Launch Date

4.27766415E11
Preventing
VITAMIN K1

Approved Use

Vitamin K1 Injection is indicated in: (1) anticoagulant-induced prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; (2) prophylaxis and therapy of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn; (3) hypoprothrombinemia due to antibacterial therapy; (3) hypoprothrombinemia secondary to factors limiting absorption or synthesis of vitamin K, e.g., obstructive jaundice, biliary fistula, sprue, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, intestinal resection, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, and regional enteritis; (4) other drug-induced hypoprothrombinemia where it is definitely shown that the result is due to interference with vitamin K metabolism, e.g., salicylates.

Launch Date

4.27766415E11
Secondary
MEPHYTON

Approved Use

MEPHYTON is indicated in the following coagulation disorders which are due to faulty formation of factors II, VII, IX and X when caused by vitamin K deficiency or interference with vitamin K activity. MEPHYTON tablets are indicated in: anticoagulant-induced prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to antibacterial therapy; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to administration of salicylates; hypoprothrombinemia secondary to obstructive jaundice or biliary fistulas but only if bile salts are administered concurrently, since otherwise the oral vitamin K will not be absorbed.

Launch Date

-4.49884815E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
32.5 ng/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PHYTONADIONE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
146 ng × h/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PHYTONADIONE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
4 h
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PHYTONADIONE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
200 mg 1 times / day steady, intravenous
Highest studied dose
Dose: 200 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 200 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 39 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: overdose of brodifacoum
Age Group: 39 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
1000 mg single, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 1000 mg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 1000 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 2
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: HCC
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 2
Sources:
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Absorption of tritiated vitamin K1 in patients with fat malabsorption.
1970 Dec
Femoral neuropathy and anticoagulants.
1972 Jul
Bleeding from self-administration of phenindione: a detailed case study.
1976 Aug
Virucidal activity of retinal.
1979 Sep
Hematomyelia during anticoagulant therapy.
1985 Nov
Specificity of increased des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in hepatocellular carcinoma after vitamin K1 injection.
1987 Aug
Simultaneous determination of vitamin K1, vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and menaquinone-4 in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.
1988 Aug 19
Anticoagulant-related intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with prosthetic heart valves--report of two cases.
1991 Nov
Skin necrosis, a rare complication of coumarin therapy.
1992
Pseudoscleroderma secondary to phytomenadione (vitamin K1) injections: Texier's disease.
1996 Feb
The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
1997 Nov 1
Interaction between fenofibrate and warfarin.
1998 Jul-Aug
The anticoagulant factor, protein S, is produced by cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells and its expression is up-regulated by thrombin.
2000 Mar 15
A conserved motif within the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene is widely distributed across animal phyla.
2000 Nov 17
Hepatic failure and encephalopathy attributed to an interaction between acetaminophen and rifampicin.
2001 Apr
Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein is a key regulator of PTH-mediated inhibition of mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells.
2001 Oct
A new model of isolated systolic hypertension induced by chronic warfarin and vitamin K1 treatment.
2003 Feb
Vitamin B12-associated localized scleroderma and its treatment.
2004 Sep
Use of recombinant factor VIIa in patients with warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage.
2005
[Haemostasis. A search for an ideal antithrombotics agent].
2005 Jan 5
[Molecular mechanisms of vitamin K action in the bone homeostasis].
2005 May
APOE genotype makes a small contribution to warfarin dose requirements.
2006 Aug
Timing of fresh frozen plasma administration and rapid correction of coagulopathy in warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage.
2006 Jan
Vitamin K deficiency reduces testosterone production in the testis through down-regulation of the Cyp11a a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme in rats.
2006 Oct
Gradual improvement of liver function after administration of ursodeoxycholic acid in an infant with a novel ABCB11 gene mutation with phenotypic continuum between BRIC2 and PFIC2.
2007 Nov
Chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition up-regulates mouse kidney growth arrest specific-6 protein and the AXL subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases.
2008 Dec
Effect of cell differentiation for neuroblastoma by vitamin k analogs.
2009 Apr
CYP4F2 is a vitamin K1 oxidase: An explanation for altered warfarin dose in carriers of the V433M variant.
2009 Jun
Effects of CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes on clinical outcomes in patients initiated on warfarin therapy.
2009 Oct
Sorafenib combined vitamin K induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cell lines through RAF/MEK/ERK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways.
2010 Jul
Identification of UBIAD1 as a novel human menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme.
2010 Nov 4
Matrix Gla protein metabolism in vascular smooth muscle and role in uremic vascular calcification.
2011 Aug 19
Dietary vitamin K alleviates the reduction in testosterone production induced by lipopolysaccharide administration in rat testis.
2011 Jul
Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces warfarin-induced arterial calcification in rats.
2011 Mar
Effects of CYP4F2 polymorphism on response to warfarin during induction phase: a prospective, open-label, observational cohort study.
2012 Apr
An endogenous vitamin K-dependent mechanism regulates cell proliferation in the brain subventricular stem cell niche.
2012 Apr
Warfarin induces cardiovascular damage in mice.
2013 Nov
FDA-approved drugs and other compounds tested as inhibitors of human glutathione transferase P1-1.
2013 Sep 5
Vitamin K1 in oral solution or tablets: a crossover trial and two randomized controlled trials to compare effects.
2014 Dec
Vitamin K1 exerts antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis in three differently graded human colon cancer cell lines.
2015
Vitamin K1 distribution following intravenous vitamin K1-fat emulsion administration in rats.
2015 Dec
Vitamin K1 alleviates streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes by mitigating free radical stress, as well as inhibiting NF-κB activation and iNOS expression in rat pancreas.
2015 Jan
Effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis.
2017
Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1): Occurrence, Biosynthesis and Functions.
2017
Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.
2017 May 1
Finding the optimal dose of vitamin K1 to treat vitamin K deficiency and to avoid anaphylactoid reactions.
2017 Oct
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Prophylaxis of Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn: A single intramuscular dose of (E)-phytonadione (Vitamin K1 Injection) 0.5 to 1 mg within one hour of birth is recommended. Treatment of Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn: 1 mg should be given either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Anticoagulant-Induced Prothrombin Deficiency in Adults: the dose of 2.5 mg to 10 mg or up to 25 mg is recommended. Hypoprothrombinemia due to other causes: a dosage of 2.5 to 25 mg or more (rarely up to 50 mg) is recommended.
Route of Administration: Other
In Vitro Use Guide
Curator's Comment: Vitamin K1 (VK1) inhibited the expression of heat-shock protein 72 (Hsp72) but did not affect the constitutive expression of Hsc70 or calnexin in vitro and in vivo. VK1 and VK2 sensitized A549 cells to heat-shock induced cell death, while the compounds alone had no effect on cell viability. The suppression of Hsp72 was apparently at the protein level because the mRNA expression of Hsp72 was unchanged.
Human lymphocytes were incubated with (E)-phytonadione at a dose of 1 uM. At this concentration (E)-phytonadione significantly increased Sister Chromatid Exchange.
Substance Class Mixture
Created
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:46:38 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:46:38 UTC 2023
Record UNII
A034SE7857
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
PHYTONADIONE
HSDB   INCI   ORANGE BOOK   USP   VANDF  
INCI  
Official Name English
VITAMIN K [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
PHYTONADIONE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
MIXTURE OF THE TRANS (E) AND CIS (Z) ISOMERS CONTAINING NOT LESS THAN 75% OF TRANS-PHYTOMENADIONE
Common Name English
PHYTONADIONE [INCI]
Common Name English
VITAMIN K-1
Common Name English
Phylloquinone
MI  
Common Name English
PHYTONADIONE [VANDF]
Common Name English
VETA-K1
Brand Name English
KONAKION
Brand Name English
PHYTONADIONE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
AQUAMEPHYTON
Brand Name English
PHYTOMENADIONE [EP IMPURITY]
Common Name English
2-METHYL-3-PHYTYL-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE
Common Name English
VITAMIN K1
WHO-IP  
Brand Name English
PHYLLOQUINONE [MI]
Common Name English
3-PHYTYLMENADIONE
Common Name English
phytomenadione [INN]
Common Name English
MONO-KAY
Brand Name English
MEPHYTON
Brand Name English
PHYTONADIONE [HSDB]
Common Name English
VITAMIN K 1
Common Name English
VITAMIN K
FCC   ORANGE BOOK   VANDF  
Common Name English
VEDA-K1
Brand Name English
VITAMIN K [FCC]
Common Name English
PHYTOMENADIONE
EP   INN   MART.   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
INN  
Official Name English
VITAMIN K1 [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
VITAMIN K [VANDF]
Common Name English
PHYTOMENADIONE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
PHYTOMENADIONE [MART.]
Common Name English
PHYTONADIONE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
Phytomenadione [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000175965
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000006290
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000006290
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DSLD 2725 (Number of products:1171)
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC B02BA01
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LOINC 58793-1
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NDF-RT N0000006290
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000175982
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C943
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NDF-RT N0000006290
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NDF-RT N0000175965
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
LOINC 9622-2
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DSLD 2515 (Number of products:1261)
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
WHO-VATC QB02BA01
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LIVERTOX NBK548213
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NDF-RT N0000180191
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WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 10.2
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NDF-RT N0000175966
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DSLD 208 (Number of products:446)
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
FDA UNII
A034SE7857
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
28384
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MESH
D014812
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
18067
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01022
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201519
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
2843
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MESH
D010837
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
LACTMED
Vitamin K
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB16472MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
8308
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
ALTERNATIVE
INN
177
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB09800MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1550
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C29365
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RS_ITEM_NUM
1538006
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
11258
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DAILYMED
A034SE7857
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
PHYLLOQUINONE
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:46:39 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
All of the following components must be present:
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
SERVING SIZE 1/2 UP
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) - 101.6 ug (97%)
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
IMPURITY -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Definition References