U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula H2O
Molecular Weight 18.0153
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of WATER

SMILES

O

InChI

InChIKey=XLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/H2O/h1H2

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula H2O
Molecular Weight 18.0153
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment:: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/sodium_ion | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5107832 | https://www.drugs.com/pro/kayexalate.html | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2907018

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in animals and humans. Sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, but the ion is not needed by plants. The human requirement for sodium in the diet is less than 500 mg per day, which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste. " Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE

Approved Use

Used as a softener for nail grooves. Also used as a slide medium in Potassium Hydroxide preparations. Apply to nail in office.

Launch Date

1279152000000
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Kayexalate

Approved Use

INDICATION AND USAGE Kayexalate is indicated for the treatment of hyperkalemia.

Launch Date

-365299200000
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Delayed cystitis due to cyclophosphamide.
1979 Jan 4
A point mutation at cysteine 189 blocks the water permeability of rat kidney water channel CHIP28k.
1993 Mar 30
Molecular characterization of an aquaporin cDNA from brain: candidate osmoreceptor and regulator of water balance.
1994 Dec 20
Determination of the mechanism of free radical generation in human aortic endothelial cells exposed to anoxia and reoxygenation.
1994 Sep 30
One-electron reduction of chromium(VI) by alpha-lipoic acid and related hydroxyl radical generation, dG hydroxylation and nuclear transcription factor-kappaB activation.
1997 Feb 15
Induction of aquaporin 3 by corticosteroid in a human airway epithelial cell line.
1997 Nov
Reactive oxygen species regulate macrophage scavenger receptor type I, but not type II, in the human monocytic cell line THP-1.
1998 Jun
Cloning and functional expression of a new aquaporin (AQP9) abundantly expressed in the peripheral leukocytes permeable to water and urea, but not to glycerol.
1998 Mar 6
Molecular characterization of a broad selectivity neutral solute channel.
1998 Sep 18
Cloning and functional expression of rAOP9L a new member of aquaporin family from rat liver.
1999 Feb
Effect of beta-blockers on free radical-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction.
1999 Jul 27
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by zinc group metal compounds.
1999 Sep
Aquaporin-1 is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and mediates rapid water transport across vascular cell membranes.
1999 Sep-Oct
Neurokinin 1 and 2 receptors mediate cholera toxin secretion in rat jejunum.
2000 Oct
Cloning and functional expression of an MIP (AQP0) homolog from killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) lens.
2001 Dec
Different protective roles in vitro of alpha- and beta-domains of growth inhibitory factor (GIF) on neuron injuries caused by oxygen free radicals.
2001 Dec 5
Erythrocyte water permeability and renal function in double knockout mice lacking aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3.
2001 Jan 5
Cr (VI) increases tyrosine phosphorylation through reactive oxygen species-mediated reactions.
2001 Jun
In vivo evidence for accelerated generation of hydroxyl radicals in liver of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats with acute hepatitis.
2001 Mar 1
Comparison of the effects of O2*-/HO* free radical- and copper ions-oxidized LDL or lipoprotein(a) on the endothelial cell releases of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
2001 Oct 5
Reduced nephrotoxicity of conventional amphotericin B therapy after minimal nephroprotective measures: animal experiments and clinical study.
2002 Aug 1
Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase suppresses human glioma cell growth.
2002 Feb 15
Suppressive effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound on the increased activity of hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase induced by oxidative stress.
2003 Dec 19
NKCC activity restores muscle water during hyperosmotic challenge independent of insulin, ERK, and p38 MAPK.
2003 Mar
Synergistic effects of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and aquaporin-9 in the rat epididymis.
2003 May
Interactions of growth inhibitory factor with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
2003 Sep
[Water permeability of the OMCD and IMCD cells' basolateral membrane under the conditions of dehydration and dDAVP action].
2004 Jul
Serum electrolyte, serum protein, serum fat and renal responses to a dietary sodium challenge: allostasis and allostatic load.
2004 Jul-Aug
Biochemistry. Water photolysis in biology.
2004 Mar 19
Molecular and functional characterization of a vasotocin-sensitive aquaporin water channel in quail kidney.
2004 Oct
Reversible silencing of CFTR chloride channels by glutathionylation.
2005 Feb
Effect of dioxane on the structure and hydration-dehydration of alpha-chymotrypsin as measured by FTIR spectroscopy.
2005 Jun 15
Inherited sodium avid states.
2006 Apr
Cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel expressed extensively in gastrointestinal system.
2006 Feb 21
Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample.
2006 Jun
Two distinct aquaporin-4 cDNAs isolated from medullary cone of quail kidney.
2007 May
A stable and sensitive testing system for potential carcinogens based on DNA damage-induced gene expression in human HepG2 cell.
2009 Feb
Tobramycin-induced aquagenic wrinkling of the palms in a patient with cystic fibrosis.
2009 Jul
Ferritin enhances salsolinol-mediated DNA strand breakage: protection by carnosine and related compounds.
2009 Jul 10
Aquaporins in the human testis and spermatozoa - identification, involvement in sperm volume regulation and clinical relevance.
2010 Aug 1
Hippocampal betaine/GABA transporter mRNA expression is not regulated by inflammation or dehydration post-status epilepticus.
2011 Apr
Redox cycling and increased oxygen utilization contribute to diquat-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.
2011 Apr 1
Inhibition of aquaporin-3 water channel in the colon induces diarrhea.
2012
Enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide excitatory effects in oxytocin and vasopressin neurones during water deprivation.
2012 Apr
Investigation of the binding pocket of human hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D2 synthase (hH-PGDS): a tale of two waters.
2012 Jun 1
A novel aquaporin 3 in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is not an arsenic channel.
2012 May
Copper(II)-human amylin complex protects pancreatic cells from amylin toxicity.
2013 Aug 14
Intracellular lumen extension requires ERM-1-dependent apical membrane expansion and AQP-8-mediated flux.
2013 Feb
Patents

Sample Use Guides

10% Potassium Hydroxide
Route of Administration: Topical
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Record UNII
059QF0KO0R
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Related Record Type
Name Type Language
WATER
INCI   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
NSC-147337
Code English
STERILE WATER
Common Name English
ULTREX II ULTRAPURE
Common Name English
WATER [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
HYDROGEN OXIDE (H2O)
Systematic Name English
WATER [INCI]
Common Name English
AQUA
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
WATER [VANDF]
Common Name English
WATER [MI]
Common Name English
AQUAFINA
Common Name English
PURIFIED WATER [MART.]
Common Name English
B1217 [LANGUAL]
Code English
R-718
Code English
AQUA [INCI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
DSLD 1013 (Number of products:234)
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1089
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1081
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1236
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1096
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
LOINC 59016-6
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1082
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
PUBCHEM
962
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
7732-18-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D014867
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-791-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB15717MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
059QF0KO0R
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C65147
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1098659
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M11507
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
11295
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB09145
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB29180
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:06:05 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> IMPURITY
Water (2.5.12): maximum 0.5 per cent, determined on 0.500 g.
EP
PARENT -> IMPURITY
Water: maximum 1.0 per cent, determined on 0.250 g.
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY