U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 31 - 40 of 2415 results

Selumetinib (AZD6244 or ARRY-142886) is a potent, selective, and ATP-uncompetitive inhibitor of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2). This inhibition can prevent ERK activation, disrupt downstream signal transduction, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation and survival. Selumetinib has shown tumour suppressive activity in multiple rodent models of human cancer including melanoma, pancreatic, colon, lung, and breast cancers. AstraZeneca is responsible for development and commercialization of selumetinib.
Lonafarnib is a well-characterized, late-stage, orally active inhibitor of farnesyl transferase, an enzyme involved in modification of proteins through a process called prenylation. It is Investigated for use/treatment in Progeria, Cancer, Hepatitis D. Lonafarnib completely inhibits Rheb prenylation and phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in cell culture, indicating a lack of alternative Rheb prenylation. Other groups have demonstrated that inhibition of protein synthesis via inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2) could be an alternate mechanism of lonafarnib induced growth inhibition that is independent of RAS/p70S6K eEF. Adverse effects included fatigue, diarrhea, dyspnea and neutropenia and respiratory insufficiency.
Lurbinectedin (PM-01183) - is a synthetic tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one alkaloid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Lurbinectedin covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent currently undergoing late-stage (Phase II /III) clinical evaluation in platinum-resistant ovarian, BRCA1/2-mutated breast and small-cell lung cancer. Lurbinectedin is structurally related to trabectedin and it inhibits active transcription and the DNA repair machinery in tumour cells.
Blu-285 is a potent and selective inhibitor for hematologic malignancies with KIT Exon 17 Mutations. BLU-285 has demonstrated biochemical in vitro activity on the KIT exon-17 mutant enzyme, KIT D816V. Cellular activity of BLU-285 on KIT D816 mutants was measured by autophosphorylation in the human mast cell leukemia cell line HMC1.2, and the P815 mouse mastocytoma cell line with IC50= 4 and 22 nM, respectively. In vivo BLU-285 was well tolerated and has demonstrated dose-dependent antitumor efficacy. Complete tumor growth inhibition and ≥ 75% KIT kinase inhibition was observed with 10 mg/kg once daily, oral dosing of BLU-285 in the aggressive KIT exon 17 mutant driven P815 mastocytoma model grown as a solid tumor allograft as well as in a disseminated model of the disease. BLU-285 was also well tolerated in this in vivo model and had no adverse effects on body weight at either dose.
Tazemetostat (EPZ-6438) is a selective inhibitor of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2. The drug is under clinical development (phase II) for the treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, Malignant Mesothelioma and Synovial Sarcoma.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Triheptanoin (also known as C7 oil) is an investigational medical food or supplement. Triheptanoin is thought to have an anaplerotic role, meaning that it can replenish substances involved in the tricarbolic acid cycle, a pathway used by cells to produce energy, providing an alternative source of energy to the brain. It supplies the body with heptanoate which can either be oxidized to propionyl-CoA directly or is metabolized by the liver to the“C5 ketones”, β-ketopentanoate and/or β-hydroxypentanoate, which are released into the blood. After one month of triheptanoin use, the level of energy production in the brain during visual stimulation had become normal in Huntington’s patients. Triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. Despite the unknown mechanism of triheptanoin’s anticonvulsant action, the fact that triheptanoin has been used safely in several animals and for various metabolic diseases in children and adults should expedite the ethical and regulatory approval processes for a clinical trial in medically refractory patients with epilepsy. Triheptanoin is phase II clinical trial for the treatment of glycogen storage disease type V, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.