U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS
Lactose is the most important carbohydrate in the milk of most species. Its biosynthesis takes place in the mammary gland. The molecular structures of α- and β -lactose differ in the orientation of a hydrogen- and a hydroxyl group on carbon atom no.1 in the glucose moiety. Both forms change into one another continuously. At room temperature, the equilibrium results in a ratio of about 40% α-lactose and 60% β-lactose. The fact that two forms of lactose exist which differ in molecular structure has profound effects on various properties of lactose such as crystallization behavior, crystal morphology, solid-state properties, and solubility. The intestine does not actively absorb lactose unless it is split into its two-monosaccharide components, i.e. glucose and galactose. This hydrolysis of lactose is affected by the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the epithelium cells in the brush-border of the small intestine. Thus, the capacity of mammals to digest lactose is dependent on the lactase activity in the intestine. The maximum activity of the enzyme occurs shortly after birth and declines during the weaning period, after which it remains at a relatively constant level. Genetically determined factors governing residual lactase activity also exist. Individuals having low lactase activity are called lactose malabsorbers. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose. The principal symptom of lactose intolerance is an adverse reaction to products containing lactose (primarily milk), including abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, borborygmi, and vomiting (particularly in adolescents). These appear one-half to two hours after consumption.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P09848
Gene ID: 3938.0
Gene Symbol: LCT
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Quantifying amorphous content of lactose using parallel beam X-ray powder diffraction and whole pattern fitting.
2001 Aug
Residual intestinal disease after milk allergy in infancy.
2001 Feb
Characterisation and disintegration properties of irradiated starch.
2001 Jun 19
Method to recover a lipophilic drug from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix tablets.
2001 Jun 9
Determination of indomethacin crystallinity in the presence of excipients using diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy.
2001 Nov
Role of galectin-3 in adenocarcinoma liver metastasis.
2001 Nov
Quantifying electrostatic interactions in pharmaceutical solid systems.
2001 Oct 4
The determination of fracture mechanics properties of pharmaceutical materials in mode III loading using an anti-clastic plate bending method.
2001 Oct 4
Lactose as a carrier in dry powder formulations: the influence of surface characteristics on drug delivery.
2001 Sep
Alpha-lactose monohydrate single crystals as hosts for matrix isolation of guest biopolymers.
2001 Sep
Effect of lacZY-marking of the 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens-strain 5-2/4 on its physiological performance and root colonization ability.
2002
Dietary calcium intake in lactose maldigesting intolerant and tolerant African-American women.
2002 Feb
Continuous twin screw extrusion for the wet granulation of lactose.
2002 Jun 4
Characterization of a surface modified dry powder inhalation carrier prepared by "particle smoothing".
2002 Oct
Purification and physicochemical characterization of a cotyledonary lectin from Luetzelburgia auriculata.
2002 Oct
The evaluation of the rheological properties of lactose/microcrystalline cellulose and water mixtures by controlled stress rheometry and the relationship to the production of spherical pellets by extrusion/spheronization.
2002 Oct
The influence of relative humidity on particulate interactions in carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulations.
2002 Oct 10
Predicting the quality of powders for inhalation from surface energy and area.
2002 Sep
Formulation design of carbamazepine fast-release tablets prepared by melt granulation technique.
2003 Apr 30
Influence of inverse gas chromatography measurement conditions on surface energy parameters of lactose monohydrate.
2003 Apr 30
In vitro nutritional requirements and metabolic products of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica: essential carbohydrates and amino acids.
2003 Aug 15
Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from closed colonies, and inbred, spontaneous mutant, and transgenic strains of rats.
2003 Dec
Determining the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical powders from the force-distance compression profile.
2003 Feb 18
Influence of physico-chemical carrier properties on the in vitro aerosol deposition from interactive mixtures.
2003 Feb 18
Carotenoid production by lactoso-negative yeasts co-cultivated with lactic acid bacteria in whey ultrafiltrate.
2003 Jul-Aug
Effects of excipients on hydrate formation in wet masses containing theophylline.
2003 Mar
The influence of carrier and drug morphology on drug delivery from dry powder formulations.
2003 May 12
Thalidomide in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: pivotal trials conducted outside the United States.
2003 Oct
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
2004 Apr
Energy-based analysis of milling alpha-lactose monohydrate.
2004 Apr
Twin screw granulation as a simple and efficient tool for continuous wet granulation.
2004 Apr 1
Characterization and taste-masking evaluation of acetaminophen granules: comparison between different preparation methods in a high-shear mixer.
2004 Feb
Single-step granulation/tabletting of different grades of lactose: a comparison with high shear granulation and compression.
2004 Jul
Use of whey ultrafiltrate as a substrate for production of carotenoids by the yeast Rhodotorula rubra.
2004 Mar
Quantifying low amorphous or crystalline amounts of alpha-lactose-monohydrate using X-ray powder diffraction, near-infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry.
2004 May
The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.
2004 May 4
Melt pelletization with polyethylene glycol in a rotary processor.
2004 May 4
Compaction of crystallographic forms of pharmaceutical granular lactoses. II. Compacts mechanical properties.
2004 Nov
Blockage of Galectin-receptor Interactions by α-lactose Exacerbates Plasmodium berghei-induced Pulmonary Immunopathology.
2016 Aug 24
Lactase non-persistent genotype distribution in Italy.
2017 Sep

Sample Use Guides

presence lactose in the food
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
There was evaluated the capability of colonic bacteria to ferment lactose and the ability of L. acidophilus to modify lactose fermentation by the colonic microflora in vitro. An anaerobic continuous culture was established and inoculated with fresh samples of human feces. Lactose infusion was maintained at 25 g/d and pH at 6.7. L. acidophilus strain LA-1 (1.5 x 10(10) cells) was introduced into the fermenter on d 0 or added daily on d 0 through 4. The control was the continuous culture without the addition of lactobacilli. Rapid adaptation of colonic bacteria to lactose occurred within 1-2 d, with a significant decrease in lactose concentration and increase in beta-galactosidase activity, and lactose concentrations fell below 3 mmol/L by d 7.
Substance Class Mixture
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
Record UNII
J2B2A4N98G
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
LACTOSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM
Common Name English
SACCHARUM LACTIS
HPUS  
Common Name English
LACTOSE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
LACTOSE [VANDF]
Common Name English
LACTOSE [INCI]
Common Name English
LACTOSE
II   INCI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
LACTOSE-ELECTRICITAS
Common Name English
SACCHARUM LACTIS [HPUS]
Common Name English
LACTOSE [II]
Common Name English
Lactose [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
MILK SUGAR
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 2553-6
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LOINC 17043-1
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CFR 21 CFR 168.122
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LOINC 2554-4
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NCI_THESAURUS C68472
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DSLD 1133 (Number of products:14)
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LOINC 74438-3
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LOINC 51598-1
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LOINC 2552-8
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Code System Code Type Description
NCI_THESAURUS
C28166
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
LACTOSE
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL417016
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
36218
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
17716
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PRIMARY
MESH
D007785
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PRIMARY
CHEBI
36219
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PRIMARY
RXCUI
6211
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PRIMARY RxNorm
FDA UNII
J2B2A4N98G
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PRIMARY
DAILYMED
J2B2A4N98G
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB04465
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PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1535
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB14317MIG
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:38:58 GMT 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Definition References