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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C12H22O11
Molecular Weight 342.297
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 9 / 9
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ANHYDROUS LACTOSE

SMILES

C(=O)[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O)O[C@@]1([H])[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O1)O)O)O)O)O

InChI

InChIKey=DKXNBNKWCZZMJT-JVCRWLNRSA-N
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4(16)7(18)11(5(17)2-14)23-12-10(21)9(20)8(19)6(3-15)22-12/h1,4-12,14-21H,2-3H2/t4-,5+,6+,7+,8-,9-,10+,11+,12-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C12H22O11
Molecular Weight 342.297
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 9 / 9
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Lactose is the most important carbohydrate in the milk of most species. Its biosynthesis takes place in the mammary gland. The molecular structures of α- and β -lactose differ in the orientation of a hydrogen- and a hydroxyl group on carbon atom no.1 in the glucose moiety. Both forms change into one another continuously. At room temperature, the equilibrium results in a ratio of about 40% α-lactose and 60% β-lactose. The fact that two forms of lactose exist which differ in molecular structure has profound effects on various properties of lactose such as crystallization behavior, crystal morphology, solid-state properties, and solubility. The intestine does not actively absorb lactose unless it is split into its two-monosaccharide components, i.e. glucose and galactose. This hydrolysis of lactose is affected by the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the epithelium cells in the brush-border of the small intestine. Thus, the capacity of mammals to digest lactose is dependent on the lactase activity in the intestine. The maximum activity of the enzyme occurs shortly after birth and declines during the weaning period, after which it remains at a relatively constant level. Genetically determined factors governing residual lactase activity also exist. Individuals having low lactase activity are called lactose malabsorbers. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose. The principal symptom of lactose intolerance is an adverse reaction to products containing lactose (primarily milk), including abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, borborygmi, and vomiting (particularly in adolescents). These appear one-half to two hours after consumption.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P09848
Gene ID: 3938.0
Gene Symbol: LCT
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Identification and synthesis of a novel 15 kDa beta-galactoside-binding lectin in human leukocytes.
1992 Aug
Method to recover a lipophilic drug from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix tablets.
2001 Jun 9
Melt agglomeration with polyethylene glycol beads at a low impeller speed in a high shear mixer.
2001 Nov
Effect of lacZY-marking of the 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens-strain 5-2/4 on its physiological performance and root colonization ability.
2002
Dry powder inhaler: influence of humidity on topology and adhesion studied by AFM.
2002 Jan 31
Delivery of formoterol from a novel multi-dose inhaler Airmax.
2002 Jun
Continuous twin screw extrusion for the wet granulation of lactose.
2002 Jun 4
A method for obtaining equilibrium tautomeric mixtures of reducing sugars via glycosylamines using nonaqueous media.
2002 May 13
Dissolution kinetics of single crystals of alpha-lactose monohydrate.
2002 Oct
Formulation design of carbamazepine fast-release tablets prepared by melt granulation technique.
2003 Apr 30
Quantitative determination of crystallinity of alpha-lactose monohydrate by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS).
2003 Apr 30
Influence of inverse gas chromatography measurement conditions on surface energy parameters of lactose monohydrate.
2003 Apr 30
Synthesis of novel apionucleosides: a short and concise synthesis of 2-deoxyapio-L-furanosyl acetate from D-lactose.
2003 Apr 4
In vitro nutritional requirements and metabolic products of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica: essential carbohydrates and amino acids.
2003 Aug 15
Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from closed colonies, and inbred, spontaneous mutant, and transgenic strains of rats.
2003 Dec
Determining the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical powders from the force-distance compression profile.
2003 Feb 18
Further investigations into the use of high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry as a means of predicting drug-excipient interactions.
2003 Feb 18
Influence of physico-chemical carrier properties on the in vitro aerosol deposition from interactive mixtures.
2003 Feb 18
Effects of excipients on hydrate formation in wet masses containing theophylline.
2003 Mar
A novel technique for imaging film coating defects in the film-core interface and surface of coated tablets.
2003 Nov
Thalidomide in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: pivotal trials conducted outside the United States.
2003 Oct
Physiological studies of Escherichia coli strain MG1655: growth defects and apparent cross-regulation of gene expression.
2003 Sep
Glucose transport in lactation.
2004
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
2004 Apr
Energy-based analysis of milling alpha-lactose monohydrate.
2004 Apr
Twin screw granulation as a simple and efficient tool for continuous wet granulation.
2004 Apr 1
Synthesis and hemolytic activity of some hederagenin diglycosides.
2004 Aug
Ab initio structure determination of the hygroscopic anhydrous form of alpha-lactose by powder X-ray diffraction.
2004 Aug
Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.
2004 Aug 25
Characterization and taste-masking evaluation of acetaminophen granules: comparison between different preparation methods in a high-shear mixer.
2004 Feb
Alternative sugars as potential carriers for dry powder inhalations.
2004 Feb 11
Demographic and health-related correlates of herbal and specialty supplement use.
2004 Jan
Visualization of the crystallization of lactose from the amorphous state.
2004 Jan
Moisture-induced surface crystallization of spray-dried amorphous lactose particles studied by atomic force microscopy.
2004 Jan
Single-step granulation/tabletting of different grades of lactose: a comparison with high shear granulation and compression.
2004 Jul
Influence of cellulose ether polymers on ketoprofen release from hydrophilic matrix tablets.
2004 Jul
Use of whey ultrafiltrate as a substrate for production of carotenoids by the yeast Rhodotorula rubra.
2004 Mar
Quantifying low amorphous or crystalline amounts of alpha-lactose-monohydrate using X-ray powder diffraction, near-infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry.
2004 May
Endotoxin testing in inhalation grade lactose-a useful quality parameter?
2004 May 4
The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.
2004 May 4
Melt pelletization with polyethylene glycol in a rotary processor.
2004 May 4
Aerosolisation of beclomethasone dipropionate using spray dried lactose/polyethylene glycol carriers.
2004 Nov
Compaction of crystallographic forms of pharmaceutical granular lactoses. II. Compacts mechanical properties.
2004 Nov
Compaction of crystallographic forms of pharmaceutical granular lactoses. I. Compressibility.
2004 Nov
Abrasive water jet cutting as a new procedure for cutting cancellous bone--in vitro testing in comparison with the oscillating saw.
2004 Nov 15
Investigations into the use of pregelatinised starch to develop powder-filled hard capsules.
2004 Nov 5
Approaches to determine the enthalpy of crystallisation, and amorphous content, of lactose from isothermal calorimetric data.
2004 Oct 13
The cohesive-adhesive balances in dry powder inhaler formulations I: Direct quantification by atomic force microscopy.
2004 Sep
Role of excipients in hydrate formation kinetics of theophylline in wet masses studied by near-infrared spectroscopy.
2004 Sep
Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process.
2004 Sep

Sample Use Guides

presence lactose in the food
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
There was evaluated the capability of colonic bacteria to ferment lactose and the ability of L. acidophilus to modify lactose fermentation by the colonic microflora in vitro. An anaerobic continuous culture was established and inoculated with fresh samples of human feces. Lactose infusion was maintained at 25 g/d and pH at 6.7. L. acidophilus strain LA-1 (1.5 x 10(10) cells) was introduced into the fermenter on d 0 or added daily on d 0 through 4. The control was the continuous culture without the addition of lactobacilli. Rapid adaptation of colonic bacteria to lactose occurred within 1-2 d, with a significant decrease in lactose concentration and increase in beta-galactosidase activity, and lactose concentrations fell below 3 mmol/L by d 7.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
Record UNII
3SY5LH9PMK
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE
EP   II   NF   USP-RS  
Common Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
LACTULOSE IMPURITY C [EP]
Common Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS [EP]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE IS PRIMARILY BETA LACTOSE OR A MIXTURE OF ALPHA AND BETA LACTOSE
Common Name English
SUPERTAB 24AN
Brand Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [II]
Common Name English
LACTOSUM, ANHYDROUS [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
LACTOPRESS ANHYDROUS
Brand Name English
SUPERTAB 22AN
Brand Name English
SUPERTAB 21AN
Brand Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS
EP   JAN   WHO-IP  
Common Name English
LACTOSE,ANHYDROUS
VANDF  
Common Name English
LACTOSE [MI]
Common Name English
LACTOSE,ANHYDROUS [VANDF]
Common Name English
LACTOSE ANHYDROUS
WHO-DD  
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [JAN]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [EP]
Common Name English
LACTOSE ANHYDROUS [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [NF]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C68472
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
FDA UNII
3SY5LH9PMK
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C74579
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
63-42-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M6662
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
PUBCHEM
3037558
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
7962
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
63-42-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1307662
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
USP_CATALOG
1356676
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A white or almost white, crystalline powder; odourless. Solubility: Freely but slowly soluble in water; very slightly soluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS; practically insoluble in ether R. Category: Tablet and capsule diluent. Storage: Lactose should be kept in a well-closed container.Labelling: The designation on the container of Lactose should state whether it is the monohydrate or the anhydrous form. Additional information: Attention should be paid to the microbiological purity, since Lactose is of natural origin.
DRUG BANK
DB04465
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-559-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL417016
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
16984-38-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
EVMPD
SUB14318MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> IMPURITY
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY