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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C20H31NO.ClH
Molecular Weight 337.9279
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE

SMILES

c1ccc(cc1)C(CCN2CCCCC2)(C3CCCCC3)O.Cl

InChI

InChIKey=QDWJJTJNXAKQKD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C20H31NO.ClH/c22-20(18-10-4-1-5-11-18,19-12-6-2-7-13-19)14-17-21-15-8-3-9-16-21;/h1,4-5,10-11,19,22H,2-3,6-9,12-17H2;1H

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C20H31NO
Molecular Weight 301.467
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity ( + / - )

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.4609
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment:: Description was created based on several sources, including http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2003/006773_s036_artane.pdf

Trihexyphenidyl (Artane, Apo-Trihex, Parkin, Pacitane), also known as benzhexol and trihex has been in clinical usage for decades.It is an anticholinergic used in the symptomatic treatment of all etiologic groups of parkinsonism and drug induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia). Trihexyphenidyl possesses both anticholinergic and antihistaminic effects, although only the former has been established as therapeutically significant in the management of parkinsonism. Trihexyphenidyl is a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It is able to discriminate between the M1 (cortical or neuronal) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). Trihexyphenidyl partially blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is also thought to increase the availability of dopamine, a brain chemical that is critical in the initiation and smooth control of voluntary muscle movement. Trihexyphenidyl is indicated for the treatment of parkinson's disease and extrapyramidal reactions caused by drugs.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride

Approved Use

Trihexyphenidyl HCl tablets are indicated as an adjunct in the treatment of all forms of parkinsonism (postencephalitic, arteriosclerotic, and idiopathic). It is often useful as adjuvant therapy when treating these forms of parkinsonism with levodopa. Additionally, it is indicated for the control of extrapyramidal disorders caused by central nervous system drugs such as the dibenzoxazepines, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, and butyrophenones.

Launch Date

-6.5136958E11
Secondary
Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride

Approved Use

Trihexyphenidyl HCl tablets are indicated as an adjunct in the treatment of all forms of parkinsonism (postencephalitic, arteriosclerotic, and idiopathic). It is often useful as adjuvant therapy when treating these forms of parkinsonism with levodopa. Additionally, it is indicated for the control of extrapyramidal disorders caused by central nervous system drugs such as the dibenzoxazepines, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, and butyrophenones.

Launch Date

-6.5136958E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
14.9 ng/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
24.4 ng/mL
5 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
294 ng × h/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
334 ng × h/mL
5 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
10.1 h
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
8.67 h
5 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Disc. AE: Constipation, Gastrointestinal disorders...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Constipation (2 patients)
Gastrointestinal disorders (4 patients)
Behaviour disorder (2 patients)
Movements involuntary (1 patient)
Drowsiness (1 patient)
Skin rash (1 patient)
Sources:
40 mg multiple, oral
Higher than recommended
Dose: 40 mg
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 40 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 25 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: drug and alcohol dependence
Age Group: 25 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Dependence...
Other AEs:
Dependence (1 patient)
Sources:
5 mg 28 times / day multiple, oral
Higher than recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 28 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 5 mg, 28 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 35 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: schizophrenic
Age Group: 35 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Dependence...
Other AEs:
Dependence (1 patient)
Sources:
0.75 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 4-15 years
n = 26
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy
Age Group: 4-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 26
Sources:
Disc. AE: Chorea, Rash...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Chorea (1 patient)
Rash (1 patient)
Hyperactivity (1 patient)
Sources:
24 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 24 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 24 mg, 1 times / day
Co-administed with::
ethopropazine(350 mg)
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 52
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: torsion dystonia
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 52
Sources:
41 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 41 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 41 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, children
n = 23
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: torsion dystonia
Age Group: children
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 23
Sources:
8 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 8 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 8 mg, 1 times / day
Co-administed with::
neuroleptic
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 49.7 years
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: schizophrenia or mental retardation
Age Group: mean 49.7 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 22
Sources:
Other AEs: Extrapyramidal symptoms...
Other AEs:
Extrapyramidal symptoms (77%)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Drowsiness 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Movements involuntary 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Skin rash 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Behaviour disorder 2 patients
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Constipation 2 patients
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Gastrointestinal disorders 4 patients
Disc. AE
0.55 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.55 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1-18 years
n = 101
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy with dystonia or/and sialorrhea
Age Group: 1-18 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 101
Sources:
Dependence 1 patient
40 mg multiple, oral
Higher than recommended
Dose: 40 mg
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 40 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 25 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: drug and alcohol dependence
Age Group: 25 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Dependence 1 patient
5 mg 28 times / day multiple, oral
Higher than recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 28 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 5 mg, 28 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 35 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: schizophrenic
Age Group: 35 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Chorea 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.75 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 4-15 years
n = 26
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy
Age Group: 4-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 26
Sources:
Hyperactivity 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.75 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 4-15 years
n = 26
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy
Age Group: 4-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 26
Sources:
Rash 1 patient
Disc. AE
0.75 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.75 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 4-15 years
n = 26
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: cerebral palsy
Age Group: 4-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 26
Sources:
Extrapyramidal symptoms 77%
8 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 8 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 8 mg, 1 times / day
Co-administed with::
neuroleptic
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 49.7 years
n = 22
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: schizophrenia or mental retardation
Age Group: mean 49.7 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 22
Sources:
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Phenothiazines in early labour.
1967 Feb 11
Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms: their incidence and treatment.
1967 Jan
Reversal of central anticholinergic syndrome in man by physostigmine.
1968 Nov 25
An unusual response to chlorpromazine therapy.
1972 Oct
Toxic liver injuries.
1973 Aug
Abnormal involuntary movements induced by anticholinergic therapy.
1974
Fluphenazine enanthate induced decompensations.
1975
Amodiaquine-induced involuntary movements.
1976 Jul 24
Mood elevating effect of trihexyphenidyl and biperiden in individuals taking antipsychotic medication.
1977 May
Death attributed to ventricular arrhythmia induced by thioridazine in combination with a single Contac C capsule.
1978 Oct 7
Malignant neuroleptic syndrome due to haloperidol. (A case report).
1983 Jan
Trihexyphenidyl dependence.
1984 Jun
Withdrawal of trihexyphenidyl.
1985 Mar
Binding and functional profiles of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonists trihexyphenidyl and dicyclomine.
1986 Sep
Anticholinergic-induced chorea in the treatment of focal dystonia.
1987
Successful treatment of levodopa-induced myoclonus and levodopa withdrawal-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. A case report.
1988 Jun
Anticholinergic overdose induced torsade de pointes successfully treated with verapamil.
1996 Nov
Trihexyphenidyl withdrawal encephalopathy.
1997 Jan
Chronic haloperidol produces a time- and dose-related slowing of lick rhythm in rats: implications for rodent models of tardive dyskinesia and neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism.
1998 May
Anti-nicotinic properties of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs.
1998 Nov
Risperidone-induced rabbit syndrome.
1998 Sep
Electromyography in cervical dystonia: changes after botulinum and trihexyphenidyl.
1998 Sep
[A case of amoxapine-induced tardive dystonia successfully treated with a low dose anti-cholinergic agent].
2000 Apr
Withdrawal-emergent rabbit syndrome during dose reduction of risperidone.
2001 Aug
Caffeine and muscarinic antagonists act in synergy to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy.
2003 Sep
Discriminative stimulus properties of 1.25 and 5.0 mg/kg doses of clozapine in rats: examination of the role of dopamine, serotonin, and muscarinic receptor mechanisms.
2004 Feb
Increased anticholinergic challenge-induced memory impairment associated with the APOE-epsilon4 allele in the elderly: a controlled pilot study.
2004 Feb
[A patient with probable dementia with Lewy bodies, who showed catatonia induced by donepezil: a case report].
2004 Oct
[Tactile hallucinations induced by trihexyphenidyl in a patient with Parkinson's disease].
2005 Feb
Therapeutic and cosmeceutical potential of ethosomes: An overview.
2010 Jul
Bipolar affective disorder associated with thenar hypoplasia: is lithium safe?
2010 Jul-Aug
Trihexyphenidyl hydro-chloride: a powder diffraction study.
2010 Sep 4
Profiling of a prescription drug library for potential renal drug-drug interactions mediated by the organic cation transporter 2.
2011 Jul 14
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Usual Adult Dose for Extrapyramidal Reaction 4 to 10 mg orally each day. The total daily dose is best tolerated when administered in 2 or three equally separated doses. Usual Adult Dose for Parkinson's Disease Initial: 1 mg/day; increase by 2 mg increments at intervals of 3 to 5 days Usual dose: 6 to 10 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses; doses of 12 to 15 mg/day may be required Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms: Initial: 1 mg/day; increase as necessary to usual range of 5 to 15 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses Use in combination with levodopa: Usual range: 3 to 6 mg/day in divided doses
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
Trihexyphenidyl 10, 50, and 100 umol/L depressed the maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential amplitude (APA) of SAP in guinea pig papillary muscles.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
Record UNII
AO61G82577
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE
EP   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USP   USP-RS   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
Common Name English
ARTANE
Brand Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
BENZHEXOL HYDROCHLORIDE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
PARCOPANE
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HCL
Common Name English
ROMPARKIN
Common Name English
1-PIPERIDINEPROPANOL, .ALPHA.-CYCLOHEXYL-.ALPHA.-PHENYL-, HYDROCHLORIDE, (+/-)-
Systematic Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [VANDF]
Common Name English
TREMIN
Brand Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
CYCLODOL
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
CYCLODOLUM [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
(+/-)-.ALPHA.-CYCLOHEXYL-.ALPHA.-PHENYL-1-PIPERIDINEPROPANOL HYDROCHLORIDE
Systematic Name English
TRIPHEDINON
Common Name English
APARKANE
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
BENZHEXOL HYDROCHLORIDE
WHO-IP  
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
NSC-757357
Code English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYLI HYDROCHLORIDUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [MI]
Common Name English
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
SEDRINA
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C38149
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C29704
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-142-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB04961MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
52-49-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
66007
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1490
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
AO61G82577
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1687006
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
CAS
52-49-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C47771
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A white or off-white, crystalline powder; odourless or almost odourless. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water; soluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS and methanol R. Category: Anticholinergic; antiparkinsonism drug. Storage: Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride should be kept in a tightly closed container. Definition: Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride contains not less than 98.0% and not more than 101.0% of C20H31NO,HCl, calculated with reference to the dried substance.
DRUG BANK
DBSALT000448
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1115
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
MERCK INDEX
M11134
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:02:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (TITRATION)
EP
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (HPLC)
USP
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IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
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IMPURITY -> PARENT
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ACTIVE MOIETY