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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C19H28NO3
Molecular Weight 318.4312
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 1

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of GLYCOPYRRONIUM

SMILES

C[N+]1(C)CC[C@@]([H])(C1)OC(=O)[C@](c2ccccc2)(C3CCCC3)O

InChI

InChIKey=ANGKOCUUWGHLCE-HKUYNNGSSA-N
InChI=1S/C19H28NO3/c1-20(2)13-12-17(14-20)23-18(21)19(22,16-10-6-7-11-16)15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-5,8-9,16-17,22H,6-7,10-14H2,1-2H3/q+1/t17-,19-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C19H27NO3
Molecular Weight 317.4233
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry EPIMERIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Glycopyrrolate is a synthetic anticholinergic agent with a quaternary ammonium structure. Glycopyrrolate is a muscarinic competitive antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics. Glycopyrrolate binds competitively to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, it inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions. Glycopyrrolate antagonizes muscarinic symptoms (e.g., bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, bradycardia, and intestinal hypermotility) induced by cholinergic drugs such as the anticholinesterases. The highly polar quaternary ammonium group of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide, which are highly non-polar tertiary amines which penetrate lipid barriers easily. Glycopyrrolate is marketed under the brand names Robinul, Robinul Forte, Cuvposa. In October 2015, glycopyrrolate was approved by the FDA for use as a standalone treatment for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as Seebri Neohaler.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: The polar ammonium moiety of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes such as the blood-brain barrier

Originator

Curator's Comment:: It was developed by Sosei and licensed to Novartis in 2005.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
9.9 null [pIC50]
9.3 null [pIC50]
9.6 null [pIC50]
9.8 null [pIC50]
9.7 null [pIC50]
9.9 null [pIC50]
9.3 null [pIC50]
9.6 null [pIC50]
9.8 null [pIC50]
9.7 null [pIC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ROBINUL

Approved Use

For use as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer.

Launch Date

-2.64816001E11
Primary
SEEBRI NEOHALER

Approved Use

SEEBRI NEOHALER is an anticholinergic indicated for the long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Launch Date

1.44616325E12
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.08 ng/mL
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
dose: 2.4 %
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
3.47 μg/L
8 μg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 8 μg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.88 ng × h/mL
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
dose: 2.4 %
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
6.64 μg × h/L
8 μg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 8 μg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
8.64 μg × h/L
6 μg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 6 μg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.83 h
6 μg/kg bw single, intravenous
dose: 6 μg/kg bw
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
68.3%
GLYCOPYRRONIUM plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Other AEs: Erythema, Burning sensation...
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Other AEs: Dry mouth, Mydriasis...
Other AEs:
Dry mouth (24.2%)
Mydriasis (6.8%)
Oropharyngeal pain (5.7%)
Headache (5%)
Urinary hesitation (3.5%)
Vision blurred (3.5%)
Nasal dryness (2.6%)
Dry throat (2.6%)
Dry eye (2.4%)
Dry skin (2.2%)
Constipation (2%)
Sources:
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Other AEs: Urinary retention, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Urinary retention (1.5%)
Nausea (1.3%)
Pruritus (1.3%)
Epistaxis (1.1%)
Alanine aminotransferase increased (4.9%)
White blood cell count decreased (6.6%)
Sources:
2 % 1 times / day multiple, topical (mean)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, >18 years of age
n = 338
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: >18 years of age
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 338
Sources:
Other AEs: Abnormal ECG...
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Other AEs: Application site pain, Dermatitis...
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Other AEs: Dry mouth, Vision blurred...
Other AEs:
Dry mouth (16.9%)
Vision blurred (6.7%)
Nasopharyngitis (5.8%)
Mydriasis (5.3%)
Urinary hesitation (4.2%)
Nasal dryness (3.6%)
Dry eye (2.9%)
Pharyngitis (2.2%)
Sources:
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Disc. AE: Vision blurred, Dry mouth...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Vision blurred (grade 1-2, 1.8%)
Dry mouth (grade 1-2, 1.6%)
Application site dermatitis (grade 1-2, 0.9%)
Urinary hesitation (grade 1-2, 0.9%)
Sources:
4 % 1 times / day steady, topical
Highest studied dose
Dose: 4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: steady
Dose: 4 %, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: 145
unhealthy, adult
n = 19
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: adult
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 19
Sources: Page: 145
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 20.4 years
n = 31
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: mean age 20.4 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 31
Sources:
Other AEs: Headache, Cough...
Other AEs:
Headache (grade 1, 12.9%)
Cough (grade 1, 3.2%)
Laceration (grade 1, 3.2%)
Rhinorrhea (grade 1, 3.2%)
Sources:
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Disc. AE: Xerostomia, Erectile dysfunction...
Other AEs: Dry mouth...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Xerostomia (12.5%)
Erectile dysfunction (4.2%)
Headaches (4.2%)
Urinary retention (4.2%)
Other AEs:
Dry mouth (50%)
Sources:
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Other AEs: Dry mouth, Headache...
Other AEs:
Dry mouth (grade 1, 16.7%)
Headache (grade 1, 5.6%)
Nocturia (grade 1, 11.1%)
Chest pain (grade 1, 5.6%)
Hypoesthesia (grade 1, 5.6%)
Nasal dryness (grade 1, 5.6%)
Sources:
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, median age 31 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: median age 31 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Disc. AE: Dry mouth, Retention urinary...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Dry mouth (grade 1-2, 1.1%)
Retention urinary (grade 1-2, 0.9%)
Urinary hesitation (grade 1-2, 0.7%)
Vision blurred (grade 1-2, 0.4%)
Sources:
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Urinary hesitation, Vision blurred...
Other AEs:
Urinary hesitation
Vision blurred
Dry mouth
Application site erythema
Dry throat
Dry eye
Nasal dryness
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Burning sensation grade 1-2, 14.1%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Erythema grade 1-2, 17%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Pruritus grade 1-2, 8.1%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Constipation 2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Dry skin 2.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Dry eye 2.4%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Dry throat 2.6%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Nasal dryness 2.6%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Dry mouth 24.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Urinary hesitation 3.5%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Vision blurred 3.5%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Headache 5%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Oropharyngeal pain 5.7%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Mydriasis 6.8%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Epistaxis 1.1%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Nausea 1.3%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Pruritus 1.3%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Urinary retention 1.5%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Alanine aminotransferase increased 4.9%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
White blood cell count decreased 6.6%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 9 to 76 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: 9 to 76 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Abnormal ECG grade 1, 0.6%
2 % 1 times / day multiple, topical (mean)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, >18 years of age
n = 338
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: >18 years of age
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 338
Sources:
Erythema grade 1-2, 2.4%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Dermatitis grade 1-2, 3.8%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Pruritus grade 1-2, 3.8%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Rash grade 1-2, 3.8%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Application site pain grade 1-2, 6.4%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Dry mouth 16.9%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Pharyngitis 2.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Dry eye 2.9%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Nasal dryness 3.6%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Urinary hesitation 4.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Mydriasis 5.3%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Nasopharyngitis 5.8%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Vision blurred 6.7%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Application site dermatitis grade 1-2, 0.9%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Urinary hesitation grade 1-2, 0.9%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Dry mouth grade 1-2, 1.6%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Vision blurred grade 1-2, 1.8%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, Mean age 33 years
n = 564
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: Mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 564
Sources:
Headache grade 1, 12.9%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 20.4 years
n = 31
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: mean age 20.4 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 31
Sources:
Cough grade 1, 3.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 20.4 years
n = 31
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: mean age 20.4 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 31
Sources:
Laceration grade 1, 3.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 20.4 years
n = 31
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: mean age 20.4 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 31
Sources:
Rhinorrhea grade 1, 3.2%
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 20.4 years
n = 31
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: mean age 20.4 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 31
Sources:
Xerostomia 12.5%
Disc. AE
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Erectile dysfunction 4.2%
Disc. AE
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Headaches 4.2%
Disc. AE
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Urinary retention 4.2%
Disc. AE
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Dry mouth 50%
2 mg 2 times / day multiple, oral (typical)
Studied dose
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 2 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean age 33 years
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: hyperhidrosis
Age Group: mean age 33 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Nocturia grade 1, 11.1%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Dry mouth grade 1, 16.7%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Chest pain grade 1, 5.6%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Headache grade 1, 5.6%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Hypoesthesia grade 1, 5.6%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Nasal dryness grade 1, 5.6%
3 mg 3 times / day multiple, oral (max)
Studied dose
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 3 mg, 3 times / day
Sources:
healthy, mean age 44 years
n = 18
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: mean age 44 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Vision blurred grade 1-2, 0.4%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, median age 31 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: median age 31 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Urinary hesitation grade 1-2, 0.7%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, median age 31 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: median age 31 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Retention urinary grade 1-2, 0.9%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, median age 31 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: median age 31 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Dry mouth grade 1-2, 1.1%
Disc. AE
2.4 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 2.4 %, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, median age 31 years
n = 459
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Age Group: median age 31 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 459
Sources:
Application site erythema
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Dry eye
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Dry mouth
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Dry throat
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Nasal dryness
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Urinary hesitation
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Vision blurred
2.4 % 6 times / day single, topical
Studied dose
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Route: topical
Route: single
Dose: 2.4 %, 6 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Population Size: 1
Sources:
OverviewDrug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
weak [IC50 100 uM]
weak [IC50 230 uM]
yes [IC50 17 uM]
yes [IC50 47 uM]
Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
likely
likely
likely
likely
likely
likely
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes [Km 119 uM]
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Coadministartion of simetidine (OCT2/MATE1 inhibitor) decreased Cmax and CLr by 6%, 23% and increased AUClast by 22%.
Page: (PMDA_A100) 19, 31
yes [Km 125 uM]
yes
unlikely (co-administration study)
Comment: Coadministartion of simetidine (OCT2/MATE1 inhibitor) decreased Cmax and CLr by 6%, 23% and increased AUClast by 22%.
Page: (PMDA_A100) 19, 31
Sourcing

Sourcing

Vendor/AggregatorIDURL
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Effects of anticholinergic treatment on the cardiac and respiratory systems in dogs sedated with medetomidine.
1991 Oct 5
[A comparison of the two anticholinergic agents atropine and glycopyrrolate during antagonism of a muscle relaxation with pyridostigmine].
1993
Asystole associated with iohexol myelography in a dog.
1997 Jul-Aug
Neuromuscular blockade after clindamycin administration: a case report.
1999 May
Vagal cardiac function and arterial blood pressure stability.
2001 Nov
Treatment of compensatory gustatory hyperhidrosis with topical glycopyrrolate.
2003 Aug 30
Urinary retention caused by topical glycopyrrolate for hyperhidrosis.
2006 Sep
The discovery of new spirocyclic muscarinic M3 antagonists.
2010 Dec 15
Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.
2016 Dec
Role of nebulized glycopyrrolate in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
2017
Glycopyrrolate: It's time to review.
2017 Feb
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Can be used as inhalation powder, for oral inhalation for the long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/207923lbl.pdf
Usual Adult Dose for Anesthesia Preanesthetic (reduction of secretions): 0.004 mg (0.02 mL)/kg IM 30 to 60 minutes prior to the anticipated time of induction of anesthesia or at the time the preanesthetic narcotic and/or sedative are administered. Intraoperative: 0.1 mg (0.5 mL) IV repeated as needed every 2 to 3 minutes. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade: 0.2 mg (1.0 mL) IV for each 1.0 mg of neostigmine or 5 mg of pyridostigmine. Reversal of bradycardia, vagal reflexes (intraoperative): 0.1 mg IV repeated as needed at 2 to 3 minute intervals. Usual Adult Dose for Peptic Ulcer Parenteral: 0.1 mg (0.5 mL) IV or IM every 4 hours, 3 to 4 times daily. If a more profound effect is required the dose may be increased to 0.2 mg (1 mL). 1 mg oral tablet: Initial dose: 1 mg orally 3 times daily or 1 mg in the morning, 1 mg in the early afternoon, and 2 mg at bedtime. Maintenance dose: 1 mg orally twice daily to a maximum of 8 mg per day. 2 mg oral tablet: 2 mg orally 2 to 3 times daily to a maximum of 8 mg per day. 1.5 mg oral tablet: Used to provide intermediate titration doses based on patient response. Usual Pediatric Dose for Anesthesia Preanesthetic: 0.004 mg (0.02 mL)/kg IM 30 to 60 minutes prior to the anticipated time of induction of anesthesia or at the time the preanesthetic narcotic and/or sedative are administered. Children under 2 years of age may require up to 0.009 mg (0.45 mL)/kg. Intraoperative: 0.004 mg (0.02 mL)/kg IV not to exceed 0.1 mg (0.5 mL) in a single dose, repeated as needed every 2 to 3 minutes. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade: 0.4 mg (2 mL)/kg IV for each 1 mg of neostigmine or 5 mg of pyridostigmine. Reversal of bradycardia, vagal reflexes (intraoperative): 4 mcg/kg/dose IV (maximum dose: 100 mcg/dose) at 2 to 3 minute intervals. Usual Pediatric Dose for Excessive Salivation 3 years to 16 years with neurologic conditions associated with problem drooling: Initiate dosing at 0.02 mg/kg orally three times daily and titrate in increments of 0.02 mg/kg every 5 to 7 days, based on therapeutic response and adverse reactions. Maximum recommended dose is 0.1 mg/kg three times daily, not to exceed 1.5 to 3 mg per dose based upon weight. Administer at least one hour before or two hours after meals.
Route of Administration: Other
Glycopyrrolate inhibited contraction induced by EFS (40 V, 0.5 ms, 4 Hz for 15 s every 4 min) in guinea-pig trachea in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=0.15 nM, n=5 ± 12). Glycopyrrolate inhibited contraction induced by EFS (40 V, 0.5 ms, 8 Hz for 15 s every 4 min) in human trachea in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=0.44 nM, n=3 ± 8).
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
Record UNII
A14FB57V1D
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
GLYCOPYRRONIUM
USAN   WHO-DD  
USAN  
Official Name English
PYRROLIDINIUM, 3-((CYCLOPENTYLHYDROXYPHENYLACETYL)OXY)-1,1-DIMETHYL-, (R*,S*)-
Systematic Name English
GLYCOPYRRONIUM ION
Common Name English
PYRROLIDINIUM, 3-((CYCLOPENTYLHYDROXYPHENYLACETYL)OXY)-1,1-DIMETHYL-
Systematic Name English
GLYCOPYRRONIUM [USAN]
Common Name English
PYRROLIDINIUM, 3-(((2R)-2-CYCLOPENTYL-2-HYDROXY-2-PHENYLACETYL)OXY)-1,1-DIMETHYL-, (3S)-REL-
Systematic Name English
GLYCOPYRRONIUM CATION
Common Name English
GLYCOPYRRONIUM [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
GLYCOPYRROLATE ION
Common Name English
GLYCOPYRRONIUM, ERYTHRO-
Common Name English
GLYCOPYRROLATE CATION
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-ATC R03AL04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175370
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QA03CA05
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC R03BB06
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QA03AB02
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175574
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC A03AB02
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
EPA CompTox
13283-82-4
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1546438
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
NCI_THESAURUS
C174595
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB02381MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00986
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Glycopyrronium
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
740028-90-4
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201335
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
A14FB57V1D
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
13283-82-4
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:36:40 UTC 2021
NON-SPECIFIC STEREOCHEMISTRY
Related Record Type Details
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Name Property Type Amount Referenced Substance Defining Parameters References
Biological Half-life PHARMACOKINETIC
Tmax PHARMACOKINETIC ORAL INHALATION