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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula H4N
Molecular Weight 18.0385
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 1

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMMONIUM CATION

SMILES

[NH4+]

InChI

InChIKey=QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-O
InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3/p+1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula H3N
Molecular Weight 17.0305
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH4+. Ammonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because urea is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant species, especially those growing on hypoxic soils. However, it is also toxic to most crop species and is rarely applied as a sole nitrogen source. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. When a loss of hydrogen ions (H+) occurs and serum chloride (Cl–) decreases, sodium is made available for combination with bicarbonate (HCO3–). This creates an excess of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) which leads to a rise in blood pH and a state of metabolic alkalosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium (as Ammonium Chloride) depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: CHEMBL1947
Sources: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324546
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

Approved Use

Unknown

Launch Date

4.55932805E11
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli.
1961 Dec
The nitrogen-fixing complex of bacteria.
1975 Mar 31
Effects of glutamate and sulphur containing amino acids on ammonia toxicity and methionine sulphoximine convulsions in mice.
1976 Jun 18
Acute changes of blood ammonia may predict short-term adverse effects of valproic acid.
1984 Nov
Possible mechanisms of anti-cholinergic drug-induced bradycardia.
1988
Venous, arterial, and arterialized-venous blood ammonia levels and their relationship to hepatic encephalopathy after propranolol.
1988 Mar
Effects of valproate and citrulline on ammonium-induced encephalopathy.
1994 Jan-Feb
Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas.
1995 Dec
Characterization of rabbit UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A7: tertiary amine glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A7 and UGT1A4.
1997 Aug 15
Determination of ammonia in cerebrospinal fluid using the indophenol direct method.
1998 Jun-Aug
Carnitine deficiency and hyperammonemia in children receiving valproic acid with and without other anticonvulsant drugs.
1999
Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.
1999 Dec
Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose.
1999 Jul
Structure of cytochrome c nitrite reductase.
1999 Jul 29
Helicobacter pylori and ammonia concentrations of whole, parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva.
1999 Jun
Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report.
1999 Mar-Apr
Effects of L-arginine on picrotoxin-induced increase in brain ammonia concentrations and convulsions in rats.
1999 Oct
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by zinc group metal compounds.
1999 Sep
Identification of osmosensitive and ammonia-regulated genes in rat astrocytes by Northern blotting and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
2001 Sep
The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders.
2002 Dec
Ammonia-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression in cultured rat astrocytes and rat brain in vivo.
2002 Dec
Ammonia aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal oxidative injury through the cancellation of cytoprotective heat shock protein 70.
2002 Oct 15
Ammonia prevents glutamate-induced but not low K(+)-induced apoptosis in cerebellar neurons in culture.
2003
Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet.
2003 Feb
[Blood ammonia and transaminases in full term infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia].
2003 May 1-15
Pharmacokinetic considerations in development of a bioartificial liver.
2004
Acute ammonia intoxication induces an NMDA receptor-mediated increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase level and NAD metabolism in nuclei of rat brain cells.
2004 Jun
Relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ammonia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic liver failure.
2005
Chronic exposure to ammonia alters the modulation of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 by metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 in cerebellar neurons in culture.
2005
Mechanisms of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling.
2005 Dec
Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans.
2005 Feb 15
Effect of the herbal medicine Dai-kenchu-to for serum ammonia in hepatectomized patients.
2005 Jan-Feb
Anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting the amine oxidase activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase.
2005 Nov
Renal expression of the ammonia transporters, Rhbg and Rhcg, in response to chronic metabolic acidosis.
2006 Feb
cAMP mediates ammonia-induced programmed cell death in the microglial cell line BV-2.
2007 Apr
Non-convulsive status epilepticus secondary to valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy.
2007 Aug
Encapsulation of glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes: a new procedure for ammonia detoxification.
2008 Dec
Ammonia metabolism capacity of HepG2 cells with high expression of human glutamine synthetase.
2008 Dec
Ammonia inhibits the C-type natriuretic peptide-dependent cyclic GMP synthesis and calcium accumulation in a rat brain endothelial cell line.
2008 May
The effects of CO2 and external buffering on ammonia excretion and Rhesus glycoprotein mRNA expression in rainbow trout.
2008 Oct
Ammonia transport in cultured gill epithelium of freshwater rainbow trout: the importance of Rhesus glycoproteins and the presence of an apical Na+/NH4+ exchange complex.
2009 Mar
Protein kinase G is involved in ammonia-induced swelling of astrocytes.
2009 May
In vivo monitoring of extracellular 13N-glutamine derived from blood-borne 13N-ammonia in rat striatum using microdialysis with radio-LC method.
2009 Oct 30
[Ammonia as a cause for hepatic encephalopathy].
2010 Feb
NHE4 is critical for the renal handling of ammonia in rodents.
2010 Jun
Ammonia and proinflammatory cytokines modify expression of genes coding for astrocytic proteins implicated in brain edema in acute liver failure.
2010 Mar
Increased Na, K-ATPase alpha2 isoform gene expression by ammonia in astrocytes and in brain in vivo.
2010 Nov
Molecular basis of inhibition of substrate hydrolysis by a ligand bound to the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase.
2010 Sep 6
Combined effects of high environmental ammonia, starvation and exercise on hormonal and ion-regulatory response in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).
2012 Jun 15
Molecular characterization of branchial aquaporin 1aa and effects of seawater acclimation, emersion or ammonia exposure on its mRNA expression in the gills, gut, kidney and skin of the freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus.
2013
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Solutions for intravenous infusion should not exceed a concentration of 1% to 2% of Ammonium Chloride. Dosage is dependent upon the condition and tolerance of the patient. It is recommended that the contents of one to two vials (100 to 200 mEq) be added to 500 or 1000 mL of isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride injection. The rate of intravenous infusion should not exceed 5 mL per minute in adults (approximately 3 hours for infusion of 1000 mL). Dosage should be monitored by repeated serum bicarbonate determinations.
Route of Administration: Intravenous
HepG2 is a human HCC line purchased from ATCC and was cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). HCC cells were treated with rapamycin (100 mkM) as an autophagy inducer and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, 10mkM) as an autophagy inhibitor. NH4Cl inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy in HCC cells.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
Record UNII
54S68520I4
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
AMMONIUM CATION
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION
Common Name English
AMMONIUM
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION(1+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM (NH4+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM ION (NH4+)
Common Name English
AMMONIUM(1+)
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LOINC 1845-7
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
LOINC 1844-0
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
LOINC 14599-5
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
DAILYMED
54S68520I4
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Ammonium cation
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1313310
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
SMS_ID
100000176250
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
14798-03-9
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID5043974
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
223
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
28938
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
54S68520I4
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
709
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:29:57 UTC 2023
ALTERNATIVE
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> IMPURITY
EP
PARENT -> IMPURITY
ammonium at 570 nm: not more than the area of the corresponding peak in the chromatogram obtained with reference solution (c) (0.02 per cent), taking into account the peak due to ammonium in the chromatogram obtained with the blank solution.
EP
PARENT -> IMPURITY
EP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY