U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C2H6O
Molecular Weight 46.0685
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ALCOHOL

SMILES

CCO

InChI

InChIKey=LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C2H6O
Molecular Weight 46.0685
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment:: description was created based on several sources, including http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/021074Orig1s010lbl.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17591544

Alcohols exhibit rapid broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against vegetative bacteria (including mycobacteria), viruses, and fungi but are not sporicidal. They are, however, known to inhibit sporulation and spore germination, but this effect is reversible. Because of the lack of sporicidal activity, alcohols are not recommended for sterilization but are widely used for both hard-surface disinfection and skin antisepsis. Lower concentrations may also be used as preservatives and to potentiate the activity of other biocides. Many alcohol products include low levels of other biocides (in particular chlorhexidine), which remain on the skin following evaporation of the alcohol, or excipients (including emollients), which decrease the evaporation time of the alcohol and can significantly increase product efficacy. Ethanol in combination with: chlorhexidine gluconate 1% was approved to use in surgical hand antiseptic. It significantly reduces the number of microorganisms on the hands and forearms prior to surgery or patient care. Ethanol is also used as a co-solvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations. Ethanol is metabolized by the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol affects the brain’s neurons in several ways. It alters their membranes as well as their ion channels, enzymes, and receptors. Alcohol also binds directly to the receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and the NMDA receptors for glutamate. The sedative effects of ethanol are mediated through binding to GABA receptors and glycine receptors (alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits). It also inhibits NMDA receptor functioning. In its role as an anti-infective, ethanol acts as an osmolyte or dehydrating agent that disrupts the osmotic balance across cell membranes.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Curative
AVAGARD

Approved Use

Surgical hand antiseptic: Significantly reduces the number of micro-organisms on the hands and forearms prior to surgery or patient care

Launch Date

9.9178558E11
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
[Opioid receptor knockout mice].
1999 Dec
Ethanol opens G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels.
1999 Dec
G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets of alcohol action.
1999 Dec
Capsaicin-sensitive afferent sensory nerves in modulating gastric mucosal defense against noxious agents.
1999 Nov
Under-recognition of prenatal alcohol effects in infants of known alcohol abusing women.
1999 Oct
Central leptin and cholecystokinin in gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage.
2000
Sex differences in nicotine substitution to a pentylenetetrazol discriminative stimulus during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
2000 Apr
Percutaneous treatment of large symptomatic renal cysts.
2000 Apr
Salicylate-induced growth arrest is associated with inhibition of p70s6k and down-regulation of c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin A, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
2000 Dec 8
Effect of CYP2E1 induction by ethanol on the immunotoxicity and genotoxicity of extended low-level benzene exposure.
2000 Feb 11
Modulating effect of alcohol use on cocaine use.
2000 Jan-Feb
Roles of tissue transglutaminase in ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation and alpha 1-adrenergic signal transduction.
2000 Jul 21
Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor function is enhanced by inhaled drugs of abuse.
2000 Jun
Cerebellar CB(1) receptor mediation of Delta(9)-THC-induced motor incoordination and its potentiation by ethanol and modulation by the cerebellar adenosinergic A(1) receptor in the mouse.
2000 May 12
Short-term treatment with alcohols causes hepatic steatosis and enhances acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1(-/-) mice.
2000 Oct 15
Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.
2001
Generalisation of ethanol with drug mixtures containing a positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and an NMDA antagonist.
2001
A novel alcohol oxidase/RNA-binding protein with affinity for mycovirus double-stranded RNA from the filamentous fungus Helminthosporium (Cochliobolus) victoriae: molecular and functional characterization.
2001 Feb 16
Intracellular fluxes in a recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated anaerobically at different dilution rates and feed concentrations.
2001 Feb 5
Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of catalase in the cytosolic or mitochondrial compartment protects against cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent toxicity in HepG2 cells.
2001 Feb 9
Patients admitted to emergency services for drunkenness: moderate alcohol users or harmful drinkers?
2001 Jan
The efficacy of esmolol versus lidocaine to attenuate the hemodynamic response to intubation in isolated head trauma patients.
2001 Jan
Selected in-treatment outcomes of long-term methadone maintenance treatment patients in New York State.
2001 Jan
Integrating the methadone patient in the traditional addiction inpatient rehabilitation program--problems and solutions.
2001 Jan
Severe ethylene glycol ingestion treated without hemodialysis.
2001 Jan
Fomepizole in the treatment of poisoning.
2001 Jan
Up-regulation of hepatic IGFBP-1 production as a strategy for preventing benign prostatic hyperplasia.
2001 Jan
Ethanol acts synergistically with a D2 dopamine agonist to cause translocation of protein kinase C.
2001 Jan
Outcome of hospital care of liver disease associated with hepatitis C in the United States.
2001 Jan
Uteroplacental insufficiency alters hepatic fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in juvenile and adult rats.
2001 Jan
A single bout of exercise induces beta-adrenergic desensitization in human adipose tissue.
2001 Jan
Effects of posttraining ethanol on an appetitive task.
2001 Jan
Genetic alterations in head and neck cancer: interactions among environmental carcinogens, cell cycle control, and host DNA repair.
2001 Jan
DNA supercoiling-dependent transcriptional coupling between the divergently transcribed promoters of the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli is proportional to promoter strengths and transcript lengths.
2001 Jan
Induction of ppGpp synthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) grown under conditions of nutritional sufficiency elicits actII-ORF4 transcription and actinorhodin biosynthesis.
2001 Jan
Evaluation of surgical excision of non-homogeneous oral leukoplakia in a screening intervention trial, Kerala, India.
2001 Jan
Smoking and alcohol in the etiology of oral cancer: gender-specific risk profiles in the south of Greece.
2001 Jan
Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: a study based on data from the Swedish twin registry.
2001 Jan
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) DeltaF508 mutation and 5T allele in patients with chronic pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group.
2001 Jan
Preparation and characterization of chitin beads as a wound dressing precursor.
2001 Jan
Structural and conformational properties of (Z)-beta-(1-naphthyl)- dehydroalanine residue.
2001 Jan
Caffeine dissociates complexes between DNA and intercalating dyes: application for bleaching fluorochrome-stained cells for their subsequent restaining and analysis by laser scanning cytometry.
2001 Jan 1
Efficient regression calibration for logistic regression in main study/internal validation study designs with an imperfect reference instrument.
2001 Jan 15
Expression of a cytoplasmic transhydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in formation of 2-oxoglutarate due to depletion of the NADPH pool.
2001 Jan 15
Morphometric assessment of testicular changes in drug-related fatalities.
2001 Jan 15
The transcriptional activator Cat8p provides a major contribution to the reprogramming of carbon metabolism during the diauxic shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
2001 Jan 5
Nucleophile selection for the endonuclease activities of human, ovine, and avian retroviral integrases.
2001 Jan 5
On the enzymatic activation of NADH.
2001 Mar 23
Improved resistance to transition metals of a cobalt-substituted alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
2001 Nov 17
Continuous enantioselective esterification of trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclohexanol using a new Candida rugosa lipase in a packed bed bioreactor.
2001 Nov 17
Patents

Sample Use Guides

apply to clean, dry hands and nails
Route of Administration: Topical
Primary cultures of cortical neurons obtained from 1-day-old rats were exposed to EtOH after 7days of culture, and viability and morphology were analyzed at structural and ultrastructural levels after 24-h EtOH exposure. EtOH caused a significant reduction of 73±7% in the viability of cultured cortical neurons, by preferentially inducing apoptotic cellular death. This effect was accompanied by an increase in caspase 3 and 9 expression. EtOH induced a reduction in total dendrite length and in the number of dendrites per cell. Ultrastructural studies showed that EtOH increased the number of lipidic vacuoles, lysosomes and multilamellar vesicles and induced a dilated endoplasmatic reticulum lumen and a disorganized Golgi apparatus with a ring-shape appearance. Microtubules showed a disorganized distribution
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:19:43 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:19:43 UTC 2021
Record UNII
3K9958V90M
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Related Record Type
Name Type Language
ALCOHOL
II   INCI   ORANGE BOOK   USP   VANDF   WHO-IP  
INCI  
Official Name English
ETHYLICUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL,ETHYL [VANDF]
Common Name English
EDIBLE ALCOHOL
INCI  
Common Name English
DEHYDRATED ALCOHOL
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS ETHANOL
JAN  
Common Name English
ALCOHOL,DEHYDRATED
VANDF  
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS ETHANOL [JAN]
Common Name English
B3324 [LANGUAL]
Code English
ETHYL ALCOHOL, ABSOLUTE
Common Name English
ETHYL ALCOHOL (ETHANOL)
Systematic Name English
ALCOHOL [II]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [VANDF]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL, DEHYDRATED
II   VANDF  
Common Name English
ALCOHOL DETERMINATION--ALCOHOL
USP-RS  
Common Name English
ALCOHOL, DEHYDRATED [II]
Common Name English
HBN-1 COMPONENT ETHANOL
Common Name English
ALCOHOL COMPONENT OF AVAGARD
Common Name English
ETHANOL [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
ETHYL ALCOHOL
FHFI   MI  
Systematic Name English
ALCOHOL,DEHYDRATED [VANDF]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [HSDB]
Common Name English
ETHANOL, ANHYDROUS [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
ETHYL ALCOHOL [MI]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL, ETHYL
Systematic Name English
PM-6193-200
Code English
ETHANOL
WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
ALCOHOL,ETHYL
VANDF  
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
1-HYDROXYETHANE
Systematic Name English
ALCOHOL, DEHYDRATED [VANDF]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [USP-RS]
Common Name English
GRAIN ALCOHOL
Common Name English
ETHANOL, DEHYDRATED
Common Name English
ALCOHOL, ABSOLUTE
Common Name English
ETHYL ALCOHOL, DEHYDRATED
Common Name English
ETHYLICUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
ETHANOL IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES [IARC]
Common Name English
DEHYDRATED ETHANOL
Common Name English
DEHYDRATED ALCOHOL [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
ALCOHOLUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
AVAGARD COMPONENT ALCOHOL
Common Name English
ABLYSINOL
Brand Name English
ETHYL ALCOHOL [FHFI]
Common Name English
ETHANOLUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [USP]
Common Name English
ETHANOL COMPONENT OF HBN-1
Common Name English
ETHANOL [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ALCOHOL [INCI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CFR 21 CFR 184.1293
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 15.1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QV03AB16
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 862.3050
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 1501
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C29756
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC V03AB16
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QV03AZ01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 212205
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 361611
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
DSLD 1152 (Number of products:173)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 402513
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QD08AX08
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 212505
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC D08AX08
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
EU-Orphan Drug EU/3/04/191
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 862.3040
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC V03AZ01
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
JECFA EVALUATION ETHANOL
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
DSLD 291 (Number of products:2)
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 746720
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC D08AX08
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C218
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 328.10
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG BANK
DB00898
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
3K9958V90M
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1012768
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
ChEMBL
CHEMBL545
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C2190
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB11947MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1310469
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
DRUG CENTRAL
1076
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
448
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
64-17-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-578-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M11495
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
CAS
8024-45-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
CAS
8000-16-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
ALCOHOL, DEHYDRATED
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A colourless, clear and mobile liquid; odour, characteristic.Miscibility: Miscible with water and ether R.Category: Solvent; antiseptic.Storage: Ethanol should be kept in a well-closed container, and stored whenever possible at a temperature between 8 and 15 ?C.Additional information: Ethanol is flammable, burning with a blue smokeless flame. Hygroscopic. Boiling point, about 79 ?C.Requirement: Ethanol contains not less than 98.8% v/v and not more than the equivalent of 100.0% v/v of C2H6O, corresponding to not less than 98.1% m/m and not more than the equivalent of 100.0% m/mof C2H6O.
LACTMED
Alcohol
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB13730MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M5084
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
USP_CATALOG
1012688
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
WIKIPEDIA
ETHANOL
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1012772
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
MESH
D000431
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
702
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB125851
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
ALCOHOL
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:19:44 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A clear, colourless, and mobile liquid; odour, characteristic. Miscibility: Miscible with water, ether R, and glycerol R. Category: Solvent; antiseptic. Storage: Alcohol should be kept in a well-closed container, and stored whenever possible at a temperature between 8 and 15 ?C. Labelling: The designation on the container should state the content of Alcohol in % v/v. Additional information: Different concentrations of Alcohol are prepared from alcohol 96% v/v and water at about 20 ?C.Note: Contraction of volume and rise in temperature occur when mixing Alcohol with water.
Related Record Type Details
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
METABOLIC ENZYME -> INDUCER
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SUB_CONCEPT->SUBSTANCE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
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METABOLITE TOXIC -> PARENT
METABOLITE -> PARENT
METABOLITE -> PARENT
FROM ACETALDEHYDE
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PARENT -> IMPURITY
EP
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ACTIVE MOIETY