U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C27H29NO11.ClH
Molecular Weight 579.9812
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 6 / 6
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE

SMILES

C[C@@]1([H])[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])(C[C@@]([H])(O1)O[C@@]2([H])C[C@@](Cc3c2c(c4c(C(=O)c5cccc(c5C4=O)OC)c3O)O)(C(=O)CO)O)N)O.Cl

InChI

InChIKey=MWWSFMDVAYGXBV-FGBSZODSSA-N
InChI=1S/C27H29NO11.ClH/c1-10-22(31)13(28)6-17(38-10)39-15-8-27(36,16(30)9-29)7-12-19(15)26(35)21-20(24(12)33)23(32)11-4-3-5-14(37-2)18(11)25(21)34;/h3-5,10,13,15,17,22,29,31,33,35-36H,6-9,28H2,1-2H3;1H/t10-,13-,15-,17-,22-,27-;/m0./s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.4609
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C27H29NO11
Molecular Weight 543.5203
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 6 / 6
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Epirubicin is an anthracycline cytotoxic agent, is a 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound is marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Ellence in the US. It is indicated as a component of adjuvant therapy in patients with evidence of axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer. Although it is known that anthracyclines can interfere with a number of biochemical and biological functions within eukaryotic cells, the precise mechanisms of epirubicin’s cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative properties have not been completely elucidated. It is known, that epirubicin forms a complex with DNA by intercalation of its planar rings between nucleotide base pairs, with consequent inhibition of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) and protein synthesis. Such intercalation triggers DNA cleavage by topoisomerase II, resulting in cytocidal activity. Epirubicin also inhibits DNA helicase activity, preventing the enzymatic separation of double-stranded DNA and interfering with replication and transcription. Epirubicin is also involved in oxidation/reduction reactions by generating cytotoxic free radicals.

CNS Activity

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ELLENCE

Approved Use

Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is indicated as a component of adjuvant therapy in patients with evidence of axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer

Launch Date

9.3735361E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
5.7 μg/mL
60 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 60 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
9.3 μg/mL
150 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 150 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
1.6 μg × h/mL
60 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 60 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
4.2 μg × h/mL
150 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 150 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
35.3 h
60 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 60 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
31.1 h
150 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 150 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
23%
60 mg/m² single, intravenous
dose: 60 mg/m²
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
EPIRUBICIN plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNHEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
200 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.13,14
unhealthy, 31–62
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Ovarian carcinoma
Age Group: 31–62
Sex: F
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.13,14
DLT: Thrombocytopenia, Leukopenia...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Thrombocytopenia (grade 4, 67%)
Leukopenia (grade 4, 67%)
Myelosuppression (grade 4, 100%)
Stomatitis (grade 3, 33%)
Sources: Page: p.13,14
95 mg/m2 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 36
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Age Group: 36
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Disc. AE: Aplasia bone marrow, Mucositis...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Aplasia bone marrow
Mucositis (grade 4)
Gastrointestinal bleeding
Sources: Page: p.11
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Disc. AE: Hyperthermia, Multiple organ failure...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Hyperthermia
Multiple organ failure
Lactic acidosis
Lactate dehydrogenase increased
Anuria
Sources: Page: p.11
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Disc. AE: Soft tissue necrosis...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Soft tissue necrosis (severe)
Sources: Page: p.1
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
DLT: Leukopenia, Neutropenia...
Disc. AE: Toxic myocarditis, Congestive heart failure...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Leukopenia
Neutropenia
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Toxic myocarditis (severe)
Congestive heart failure (grade 3-5)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Myelosuppression (severe)
Hyperuricemia
Thrombophlebitis
Thromboembolic event
Pulmonary embolism
Sources: Page: p.1
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Stomatitis grade 3, 33%
DLT, Disc. AE
200 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.13,14
unhealthy, 31–62
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Ovarian carcinoma
Age Group: 31–62
Sex: F
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.13,14
Myelosuppression grade 4, 100%
DLT, Disc. AE
200 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.13,14
unhealthy, 31–62
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Ovarian carcinoma
Age Group: 31–62
Sex: F
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.13,14
Leukopenia grade 4, 67%
DLT, Disc. AE
200 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.13,14
unhealthy, 31–62
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Ovarian carcinoma
Age Group: 31–62
Sex: F
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.13,14
Thrombocytopenia grade 4, 67%
DLT, Disc. AE
200 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
MTD
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 200 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.13,14
unhealthy, 31–62
n = 3
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Ovarian carcinoma
Age Group: 31–62
Sex: F
Population Size: 3
Sources: Page: p.13,14
Aplasia bone marrow Disc. AE
95 mg/m2 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 36
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Age Group: 36
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Gastrointestinal bleeding Disc. AE
95 mg/m2 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 36
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Age Group: 36
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Mucositis grade 4
Disc. AE
95 mg/m2 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 95 mg/m2, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 36
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Age Group: 36
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Anuria Disc. AE
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Hyperthermia Disc. AE
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Lactate dehydrogenase increased Disc. AE
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Lactic acidosis Disc. AE
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Multiple organ failure Disc. AE
320 mg/m2 single, intravenous
Overdose
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 320 mg/m2
Sources: Page: p.11
unhealthy, 63
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Breast cancer and liver metastasis
Age Group: 63
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources: Page: p.11
Soft tissue necrosis severe
Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Leukopenia DLT, Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Neutropenia DLT, Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Acute promyelocytic leukemia Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Hyperuricemia Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Pulmonary embolism Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Thromboembolic event Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Thrombophlebitis Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Congestive heart failure grade 3-5
Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Myelosuppression severe
Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Toxic myocarditis severe
Disc. AE
120 mg/m2 1 times / 3 weeks multiple, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 120 mg/m2, 1 times / 3 weeks
Sources: Page: p.1
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer
Sources: Page: p.1
Sourcing

Sourcing

Vendor/AggregatorIDURL
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Docetaxel and epirubicin in advanced breast cancer.
2001
Adjuvant chemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin intensification without progenitor cell support in breast cancer patients with ten or more involved nodes: 5-year results of a pilot trial.
2001
Dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel and CMF in high-risk breast cancer.
2001
Intensive cyclic chemotherapy with unprocessed whole blood support in advanced breast cancer.
2001
Chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer: what to expect in 2001 and beyond.
2001
Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin and paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer.
2001
Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastro-oesophageal cancer with epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil: a single-centre experience.
2001
Intensified chemotherapy supported by DMSO-free peripheral blood progenitor cells in breast cancer patients.
2001 Apr
Gemcitabine, epirubicin, and paclitaxel combinations in advanced breast cancer.
2001 Apr
Tolerability of the cytoprotective agent amifostine in elderly patients receiving chemotherapy: a comparative study.
2001 Apr
High-dose epirubicin plus docetaxel at standard dose with lenograstim support as first-line therapy in advanced breast cancer.
2001 Apr
Clinical impacts of tumor cell contamination of hematopoietic stem cell products in metastatic breast cancer patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: multicenter trial.
2001 Apr
Carboplatin alone vs carboplatin plus epidoxorubicin as second-line therapy for cisplatin- or carboplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer.
2001 Apr
Second-line therapy for potentially platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer: what is optimal treatment?
2001 Apr
Primary high-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma of the cervix presenting as a common endocervical polyp.
2001 Apr
Local hyperthermia, radiation, and chemotherapy in recurrent breast cancer is feasible and effective except for inflammatory disease.
2001 Apr 1
Patterns of failure after induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the Queen Mary Hospital experience.
2001 Apr 1
Expression and prognostic significance of catalase in malignant mesothelioma.
2001 Apr 1
Ondansetron plus metopimazine compared with ondansetron plus metopimazine plus prednisolone as antiemetic prophylaxis in patients receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.
2001 Apr 1
Accelerated-intensified cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (CEF) compared with standard CEF in metastatic breast cancer patients: results of a multicenter, randomized phase III study of the Italian Gruppo Oncologico Nord-Ouest-Mammella Inter Gruppo Group.
2001 Apr 15
Randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy versus control after curative resection for gastric cancer: 5-year follow-up.
2001 Apr 6
Preoperative high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support as a primary management of locally advanced breast cancer.
2001 Feb
The gemcitabine/epirubicin/paclitaxel trials in advanced breast cancer.
2001 Feb
High-dose thiotepa and melphalan with hemopoietic progenitor support following induction therapy with epirubicin-paclitaxel-containing regimens in metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
2001 Jan
Generalised seizures following ondansetron.
2001 Jan
[Docetaxel (Taxotere) in combination with anthracycline, capecitabin (Xeloda) and new drugs].
2001 Jan-Feb
Reversal of multidrug resistance to epirubicin by cyclosporin A in liposomes or intralipid.
2001 Jan-Feb
Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma in a patient with H. pylori infection. Could the two neoplasms share a common pathogenesis?
2001 Jan-Feb
Combined use of chemotherapy and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the treatment of advanced-stage neuroblastoma.
2001 Jan-Mar
Activation of caspase-3 in renal cell carcinoma cells by anthracyclines or 5-fluorouracil.
2001 Jul
Chemotherapy response of breast cancer depends on HER-2 status and anthracycline dose intensity in the neoadjuvant setting.
2001 Jun
Importance of surgery as salvage treatment after high dose chemotherapy failure in germ cell tumors.
2001 Jun
Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
2001 Mar
Impact of chemotherapy dose-density on radiotherapy dose-intensity after breast conserving surgery.
2001 Mar
High incidence of central nervous system involvement in patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer treated with epirubicin and docetaxel.
2001 Mar
Effective treatment with rituximab in a patient with refractory prolymphocytoid transformed B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Evans syndrome.
2001 Mar
A phase II study of dose-intense ifosfamide plus epirubicin with hematopoietic growth factors for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas; a novel sequential schedule.
2001 Mar
[Long-term survival of a patient with postoperative liver metastasis of stage IVa gallbladder cancer responding to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy].
2001 Mar
Efficacy of vinorelbine, epirubicin and prednisone combination regimen in pretreated elderly patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
2001 Mar
Randomized trials of high dose chemotherapy for breast cancer.
2001 Mar 21
Neoadjuvant high dose chemotherapy plus peripheral blood progenitor cells in inflammatory breast cancer: a multicenter phase II pilot study.
2001 May
Optimizing adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy: rationale for the MA.21 study.
2001 May
New combinations with epirubicin in advanced breast cancer.
2001 May
Epirubicin/taxane combinations in breast cancer: experience from several Italian trials.
2001 May
Dose-dense and sequential strategies in adjuvant breast cancer therapy.
2001 May
Management of extravasation injuries.
2001 May
Kinetics of PBPC mobilization by cyclophosphamide, as compared with that by epirubicin/paclitaxel followed by G-CSF support: implications for optimal timing of PBPC harvest.
2001 May
Prospective evaluation of early cardiac damage induced by epirubicin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy in breast cancer patients.
2001 May 15
Definitive results of a phase II trial of cisplatin, epirubicin, continuous-infusion fluorouracil, and gemcitabine in stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
2001 May 15
Telomere length in breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation.
2001 May 18
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Injection is administered to patients by intravenous infusion. Drug is given in 14 repeated 3- to 4-week cycles. The total dose may be given on Day 1 of each cycle 15 or divided equally and given on Days 1 and 8 of each cycle. The recommended starting dose is 100 to 120 mg/m2.
Route of Administration: Intravenous
It was investigated the effect of combined treatment with the anthracycline agent epirubicin (EPI) and NK cells on human breast cancer cells. NK cells were obtained by autologous adoptive cell transfer from breast cancer patients and amplified for 14 days in vitro. The cytotoxicity of NK cells against breast cancer cells was higher following EPI (5.0 μg/ml) pretreatment than without EPI pretreatment or application of EPI alone. The expression of NKG2D ligands [unique long 16-binding protein (ULBP) 1, ULBP2, and major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A] in breast cancer cells was upregulated by pretreatment with EPI, which also increased the secretion of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and expression of perforin and granzyme B in NK cells. These results indicate that EPI-NK cell treatment has synergistic cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells, and suggest that anthracycline-based chemotherapy and NK cell-based immunotherapy can be combined for more effective breast cancer treatment.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
Record UNII
22966TX7J5
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE
EP   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   USP-RS   WHO-DD  
USAN  
Official Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [MI]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HCL [VANDF]
Common Name English
ELLENCE
Brand Name English
FARMORUBICINA
Brand Name English
(1S,3S)-3-GLYCOLOYL-1,2,3,4,6,11-HEXAHYDRO-3,5,12-TRIHYDROXY-10-METHOXY-6,11-DIOXO-1-NAPHTHACENYL 3-AMINO-2,3,6-TRIDEOXY-.ALPHA.-L-ARABINO-HEXOPYRANOSIDE HYDROCHLORIDE
Common Name English
WP-697
Code English
EPIRUBICIN HCL
VANDF  
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [USP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
5,12-NAPHTHACENEDIONE, 10-((3-AMINO-2,3,6-TRIDEOXY-.ALPHA.-L-ARABINO-HEXOPYRANOSYL)OXY)-7,8,9,10-TETRAHYDRO-6,8,11-TRIHYDROXY-8-(HYDROXYACETYL)-1-METHOXY-, HYDROCHLORIDE, (8S-CIS)-
Common Name English
IMI-28
Code English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [USAN]
Common Name English
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
NSC-759195
Code English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C1594
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG BANK
DBSALT001168
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C474
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL417
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
260-145-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
22966TX7J5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
203213
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
CAS
56390-09-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M4948
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
PUBCHEM
65348
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1237382
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
EVMPD
SUB01915MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:01:00 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (HPLC)
EP
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
BASIS OF STRENGTH->SUBSTANCE
ASSAY (HPLC)
EP
Related Record Type Details
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
For the calculation of contents, multiply the peak areas by 0.7
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
IMPURITY -> PARENT
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
USP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY