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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C12H22O11
Molecular Weight 342.297
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 9 / 9
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ANHYDROUS LACTOSE

SMILES

C(=O)[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O)O[C@@]1([H])[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O1)O)O)O)O)O

InChI

InChIKey=DKXNBNKWCZZMJT-JVCRWLNRSA-N
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4(16)7(18)11(5(17)2-14)23-12-10(21)9(20)8(19)6(3-15)22-12/h1,4-12,14-21H,2-3H2/t4-,5+,6+,7+,8-,9-,10+,11+,12-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Lactose is the most important carbohydrate in the milk of most species. Its biosynthesis takes place in the mammary gland. The molecular structures of α- and β -lactose differ in the orientation of a hydrogen- and a hydroxyl group on carbon atom no.1 in the glucose moiety. Both forms change into one another continuously. At room temperature, the equilibrium results in a ratio of about 40% α-lactose and 60% β-lactose. The fact that two forms of lactose exist which differ in molecular structure has profound effects on various properties of lactose such as crystallization behavior, crystal morphology, solid-state properties, and solubility. The intestine does not actively absorb lactose unless it is split into its two-monosaccharide components, i.e. glucose and galactose. This hydrolysis of lactose is affected by the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the epithelium cells in the brush-border of the small intestine. Thus, the capacity of mammals to digest lactose is dependent on the lactase activity in the intestine. The maximum activity of the enzyme occurs shortly after birth and declines during the weaning period, after which it remains at a relatively constant level. Genetically determined factors governing residual lactase activity also exist. Individuals having low lactase activity are called lactose malabsorbers. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose. The principal symptom of lactose intolerance is an adverse reaction to products containing lactose (primarily milk), including abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, borborygmi, and vomiting (particularly in adolescents). These appear one-half to two hours after consumption.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Target ID: P09848
Gene ID: 3938.0
Gene Symbol: LCT
Target Organism: Homo sapiens (Human)
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Quantifying amorphous content of lactose using parallel beam X-ray powder diffraction and whole pattern fitting.
2001 Aug
The effect of co-spray drying with polyethylene glycol 4000 on the crystallinity and physical form of lactose.
2001 Mar 23
Cold extrusion as a continuous single-step granulation and tabletting process.
2001 Nov
The determination of fracture mechanics properties of pharmaceutical materials in mode III loading using an anti-clastic plate bending method.
2001 Oct 4
Alpha-lactose monohydrate single crystals as hosts for matrix isolation of guest biopolymers.
2001 Sep
Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new sialyl Lewis X mimetic derived from lactose.
2002 Aug 9
Delivery of formoterol from a novel multi-dose inhaler Airmax.
2002 Jun
Wax beads as cushioning agents during the compression of coated diltiazem pellets.
2002 Nov
Synthesis and anti-HCMV activity of novel acyclic nucleosides.
2002 Oct
Dissolution kinetics of single crystals of alpha-lactose monohydrate.
2002 Oct
Predicting the quality of powders for inhalation from surface energy and area.
2002 Sep
Synthesis of novel apionucleosides: a short and concise synthesis of 2-deoxyapio-L-furanosyl acetate from D-lactose.
2003 Apr 4
Studies on the preparation of chitosan microcarriers cross-linked by oxidized lactose and culture of primary hepatocytes.
2003 Aug
Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from closed colonies, and inbred, spontaneous mutant, and transgenic strains of rats.
2003 Dec
Determining the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical powders from the force-distance compression profile.
2003 Feb 18
Further investigations into the use of high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry as a means of predicting drug-excipient interactions.
2003 Feb 18
Carotenoid production by lactoso-negative yeasts co-cultivated with lactic acid bacteria in whey ultrafiltrate.
2003 Jul-Aug
Thalidomide in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: pivotal trials conducted outside the United States.
2003 Oct
Energy-based analysis of milling alpha-lactose monohydrate.
2004 Apr
Twin screw granulation as a simple and efficient tool for continuous wet granulation.
2004 Apr 1
Ab initio structure determination of the hygroscopic anhydrous form of alpha-lactose by powder X-ray diffraction.
2004 Aug
Alternative sugars as potential carriers for dry powder inhalations.
2004 Feb 11
Demographic and health-related correlates of herbal and specialty supplement use.
2004 Jan
Visualization of the crystallization of lactose from the amorphous state.
2004 Jan
Moisture-induced surface crystallization of spray-dried amorphous lactose particles studied by atomic force microscopy.
2004 Jan
Quantifying low amorphous or crystalline amounts of alpha-lactose-monohydrate using X-ray powder diffraction, near-infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry.
2004 May
The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.
2004 May 4
Aerosolisation of beclomethasone dipropionate using spray dried lactose/polyethylene glycol carriers.
2004 Nov
Compaction of crystallographic forms of pharmaceutical granular lactoses. I. Compressibility.
2004 Nov
Blockage of Galectin-receptor Interactions by α-lactose Exacerbates Plasmodium berghei-induced Pulmonary Immunopathology.
2016 Aug 24

Sample Use Guides

presence lactose in the food
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
There was evaluated the capability of colonic bacteria to ferment lactose and the ability of L. acidophilus to modify lactose fermentation by the colonic microflora in vitro. An anaerobic continuous culture was established and inoculated with fresh samples of human feces. Lactose infusion was maintained at 25 g/d and pH at 6.7. L. acidophilus strain LA-1 (1.5 x 10(10) cells) was introduced into the fermenter on d 0 or added daily on d 0 through 4. The control was the continuous culture without the addition of lactobacilli. Rapid adaptation of colonic bacteria to lactose occurred within 1-2 d, with a significant decrease in lactose concentration and increase in beta-galactosidase activity, and lactose concentrations fell below 3 mmol/L by d 7.
Name Type Language
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE
EP   II   NF   USP-RS  
Common Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
LACTULOSE IMPURITY C [EP]
Common Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS [EP]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE IS PRIMARILY BETA LACTOSE OR A MIXTURE OF ALPHA AND BETA LACTOSE
Common Name English
SUPERTAB 24AN
Brand Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [USP-RS]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [II]
Common Name English
LACTOSUM, ANHYDROUS [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
LACTOPRESS ANHYDROUS
Brand Name English
SUPERTAB 22AN
Brand Name English
SUPERTAB 21AN
Brand Name English
LACTOSE, ANHYDROUS
EP   JAN   WHO-IP  
Common Name English
LACTOSE,ANHYDROUS
VANDF  
Common Name English
LACTOSE [MI]
Common Name English
LACTOSE,ANHYDROUS [VANDF]
Common Name English
LACTOSE ANHYDROUS
WHO-DD  
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [JAN]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [EP]
Common Name English
LACTOSE ANHYDROUS [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE [NF]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C68472
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
FDA UNII
3SY5LH9PMK
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C74579
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
63-42-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M6662
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
PUBCHEM
3037558
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
7962
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
63-42-3
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1307662
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
USP_CATALOG
1356676
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A white or almost white, crystalline powder; odourless. Solubility: Freely but slowly soluble in water; very slightly soluble in ethanol (~750 g/l) TS; practically insoluble in ether R. Category: Tablet and capsule diluent. Storage: Lactose should be kept in a well-closed container.Labelling: The designation on the container of Lactose should state whether it is the monohydrate or the anhydrous form. Additional information: Attention should be paid to the microbiological purity, since Lactose is of natural origin.
DRUG BANK
DB04465
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-559-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL417016
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
16984-38-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
EVMPD
SUB14318MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 20:44:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY