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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C16H20N2O4S2.2ClH.H2O
Molecular Weight 459.408
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of PYRITINOL HYDROCHLORIDE

SMILES

O.Cl.Cl.CC1=NC=C(CSSCC2=CN=C(C)C(O)=C2CO)C(CO)=C1O

InChI

InChIKey=VFEKMAOUJHONFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C16H20N2O4S2.2ClH.H2O/c1-9-15(21)13(5-19)11(3-17-9)7-23-24-8-12-4-18-10(2)16(22)14(12)6-20;;;/h3-4,19-22H,5-8H2,1-2H3;2*1H;1H2

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description

Pyritinol is a semi natural analogue of water soluble vitamin B6. Pyritinol was synthetized way back in 1961 by Merck Laboratories. After years of research, it entered the market in the 1970s, where it was used for clinical applications – including treating stroke patients and those with Alzheimer’s. Since the 1990s, it has been sold as a nootropic dietary supplement in the United States and many other parts of the world. Pyritinol, unlike many other nootropics, has been approved for use as a medical treatment in countries around the world. Doctors in many European countries use Pyritinol to treat patients with chronic degenerative brain disorders – like dementia. Countries where Pyritinol is an approved treatment include Austria, Germany, France, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. France has approved the use of Pyritinol – but only as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Pyritinol is not currently licensed for use in the United Kingdom, but in most other countries, it’s available online or through drug stores as an over the counter substance. Pyritinol is marketed under the brand names Encephabol, Encefabol and Cerbon 6. One of the known mechanisms of action of Pyritinol involves increasing choline uptake into your neurons and thereby increasing acetylcholine levels. Pyritinol is also a great effective precursor to dopamine, which is one of the neurotransmitter mood-boosters in the brain. Pyritinol has better conversion into the neurochemical. This drug increases dopamine, which can keep the brain from anxiety because a lower dopamine level is connected to mood disorders and depression.

CNS Activity

Originator

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Conditions
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Effect of nicergoline on learning and memory.
1988 Jul
Prolongevity medicine: Antagonic-Stress drug in distress, geriatrics, and related diseases. II. Clinical review--2003.
2004 Jun
Severe cholestatic hepatitis induced by pyritinol.
2004 Mar 6
Stability-indicating methods for determination of pyritinol dihydrochloride in the presence of its precursor and degradation product by derivative spectrophotometry.
2005 Jan-Feb
Stability-indicating electrochemical methods for the determination of meclophenoxate hydrochloride and pyritinol dihydrochloride using ion-selective membrane electrodes.
2007 Jan
Pyritinol reduces nociception and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
2008 Aug 20
Pyritinol for post asphyxial encephalopathy in term babies-- a randomized double-blind controlled trial.
2009 Jan
Stability-indicating chemometric methods for the determination of pyritinol dihydrochloride.
2009 May
Selective Vulnerabilities of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors During Brain Aging.
2010
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Encephabol (Pyritinol) comes in coated tablets. The dosage depends on the severity of the patients condition. Tablets should be taken with meal and a large glass of water. Dosage for adults: 600 mg a day (2 tabs 3 times a day). Dosage for newborn infants: on the third day of life 20 mg a day during a month. Dosage for pediatric patients: 2 months: the dosage is increases 20 mg every next week until the daily dose will be 100 mg. 1-7 years old: 50-300 mg a day. 7 years old and over: 50-600 mg a day (1-2 tabs 1-3 times a day). In patients with chronic conditions the period of therapy should be no less than 8 weeks.
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
Pretreatment of rabbit peritoneal neutrophils with Pyritinol had an inhibitory effect on random migration or fMLP-activated chemotaxis at high concentrations (1 mM), and a slight potentiating effect at low concentrations (10 uM)
Name Type Language
PYRITINOL HYDROCHLORIDE
MART.  
Common Name English
PYRITINOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE [MI]
Common Name English
ENERBOL
Brand Name English
LIFE
Brand Name English
ENBOL
Brand Name English
EPOCAN
Brand Name English
PYRITHIOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE
JAN  
Common Name English
PYRITINOL HYDROCHLORIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
PYRITINOL HCL
Common Name English
ENCEPHABOL
Common Name English
BONIFEN
Brand Name English
BIOCEFALIN
Brand Name English
5,5-DIHYDROXY-6,6-DIMETHYL-3,3-DITHIODIMETHYLENEBIS(4-PYRIDYLMETHANOL) DIHYDOCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE
Common Name English
PYRITHIOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE [JAN]
Common Name English
PYRITINOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE
MI  
Common Name English
Code System Code Type Description
EPA CompTox
60479-98-3
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
RXCUI
236508
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY RxNorm
PUBCHEM
11954251
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB04145MIG
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M9379
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Merck Index
CAS
60479-98-3
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL488093
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 00:42:59 UTC 2019
PRIMARY