U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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ODM-201 (also known as BAY-1841788) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen, specifically, a full and high-affinity antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), that is under development by Orion and Bayer HealthCare for the treatment of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). ODM-201 appears to negligibly cross the blood-brain-barrier. This is beneficial due to the reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects from off-target GABAA receptor inhibition that tends to occur in non-steroidal antiandrogens that are structurally similar to enzalutamide. Moreover, in accordance with its lack of central penetration, ODM-201 does not seem to increase testosterone levels in mice or humans, unlike other non-steroidal antiandrogens. Another advantage is that ODM-201 has been found to block the activity of all tested/well-known mutant ARs in prostate cancer, including the recently-identified clinically-relevant F876L mutation. ODM-201 has been studied in phase I and phase II clinical trials and has thus far been found to be effective and well-tolerated, with the most commonly reported side effects including fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea. No seizures have been observed.
Fostamatinib is a pro-drug of a Syk inhibitor R406 initially developed by Rigel Pharmaceuticals, but then in-licensed by AstraZeneca. It reached phase III of clinical trials for such diseases as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, however, AstraZeneca decided not to proceed with regulatory filings and return the rights to the compound to Rigel Pharmaceuticals. In 2018 the drug was approved by the FDA for treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Fostamatinib is being developed for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (phase II), graft versus host disease (phase I) and ovarian cancer (phase I).

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Grazoprevir is a second generation NS3/4A protease inhibitor approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 infections in adult patients in combination with elbasvir (C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor) as the fixed-dose combination product Zepatier with or without ribavirin. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin. Elbasvir/grazoprevir was generally well tolerated. Thus, elbasvir/grazoprevir, with or without ribavirin, represents an effective new option for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection, including a number of difficult-to-treat populations.
Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)


Conditions:

Ranolazine is a metabolic modulator developed by Syntex (Roche) and sold under the trade name Ranexa by Gilead Sciences. Ranexa has antianginal and anti-ischemic effects that do not depend upon reductions in heart rate or blood pressure. The mechanism of action of ranolazine is unknown. It does not increase the rate-pressure product, a measure of myocardial work, at maximal exercise. In vitro studies suggest that ranolazine is a P-gp inhibitor. Ranolazine is believed to have its effects via altering the trans-cellular late sodium current. It is by altering the intracellular sodium level that ranolazine affects the sodium-dependent calcium channels during myocardial ischemia. Thus, ranolazine indirectly prevents the calcium overload that causes cardiac ischemia. Because Ranexa prolongs the QT interval, it should be reserved for patients who have not achieved an adequate response with other antianginal drugs. Ranexa should be used in combination with amlodipine, beta-blockers or nitrates. The effect on angina rate or exercise tolerance appeared to be smaller in women than men.
Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Ramelteon was approved by the United States (U.S.) in July 2005, and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in April 2010. It is currently available in the USA and Japan as ROZEREM and is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset. In October 7, 2011, Takeda has decided to discontinue the development of ramelteon in Europe for the treatment of insomnia in order to best optimize Takeda’s resources for its research and development activities. Ramelteon is a melatonin receptor agonist with both high affinity for melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors and selectivity over the MT3 receptor. Ramelteon demonstrates full agonist activity in vitro in cells expressing human MT1 or MT2 receptors, and high selectivity for human MT1 and MT2 receptors compared to the MT3 receptor. The activity of ramelteon at the MT1 and MT2 receptors is believed to contribute to its sleep-promoting properties since these receptors are acted upon by endogenous melatonin and are thought to be involved in the maintenance of the circadian rhythm underlying normal sleep-wake cycles. Ramelteon has no appreciable affinity for the GABA receptor complex or for receptors that bind neuropeptides, cytokines, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and opiates.
Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of calcium sensing receptor. The drug is approved by FDA (Sensipar trade name) and used for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in adult patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis; hypercalcemia in adult patients with parathyroid carcinoma; hypercalcemia in adult patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who are unable to undergo parathyroidectomy.
Rimantadine (INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, influenzavirus A infection. Rimantadine is an M2 ion channel inhibitor which specifically inhibits the replication of influenza A viruses by interfering with the uncoating process of the virus. M2 inhibitors block the ion channel formed by the M2 protein that spans the viral membrane (Hay 1985, Sugrue 1991). The influenza virus enters its host cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Thereafter, acidification of the endocytotic vesicles is required for the dissociation of the M1 protein from the ribonucleoprotein complexes. Only then are the ribonucleoprotein particles imported into the nucleus via the nuclear pores. The hydrogen ions needed for acidification pass through the M2 channel. The drug is effective against all influenza A subtypes that have previously caused disease in humans (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2), but not against influenza B virus because the M2 protein is unique to influenza A viruses. Rimantadine is not active against the avian flu subtype H5N1 strains that have recently caused disease in humans.
Mesalamine, also known as Mesalazine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammation of the digestive tract (Crohn's disease) and mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Mesalazine is a bowel-specific aminosalicylate drug that is metabolized in the gut and has its predominant actions there, thereby having fewer systemic side effects. As a derivative of salicylic acid, 5-ASA is also an antioxidant that traps free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of metabolism. Although the mechanism of action of mesalazine is not fully understood, it appears to be topical rather than systemic. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid metabolites, both through the cyclooxygenase pathways, i.e., prostanoids, and through the lipoxygenase pathways, i.e., leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and it is possible that mesalazine diminishes inflammation by blocking cyclooxygenase and inhibiting prostaglandin production in the colon. Mesalazine is used for the treatment of active ulcerative proctitis.
Trazodone (brand name Oleptro, Desyrel, etc) is a serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. Trazodone binds to the 5-HT2 receptor, it acts as a serotonin agonist at high doses and a serotonin antagonist at low doses. Like fluoxetine, trazodone's antidepressant activity likely results from blockage of serotonin reuptake by inhibiting serotonin reuptake pump at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. If used for long time periods, postsynaptic neuronal receptor binding sites may also be affected. The sedative effect of trazodone is likely the result of alpha-adrenergic blocking action and modest histamine blockade at the H1 receptor. It weakly blocks presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic receptors and strongly inhibits postsynaptic alpha1 receptors. Trazodone does not affect the reuptake of norepinephrine or dopamine within the CNS. Because of its lack of anticholinergic side effects, trazodone is especially useful in situations in which antimuscarinic effects are particularly problematic (e.g., in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, closed-angle glaucoma, or severe constipation). Trazodone's propensity to cause sedation is a dual-edged sword. For many patients, the relief from agitation, anxiety, and insomnia can be rapid; for other patients, including those individuals with considerable psychomotor retardation and feelings of low energy, therapeutic doses of trazodone may not be tolerable because of sedation. Trazodone elicits orthostatic hypotension in some patients, probably as a consequence of α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. Mania has been observed in association with trazodone treatment, including in patients with bipolar disorder, as well as in patients with previous diagnoses of major depression. Compared to the reversible MAOI antidepressant drug moclobemide, significantly more impairment of vigilance occurs with trazodone.
Metolazone is a thiazide-like diuretic marketed under the brand names Mykrox and Zaroxolyn. Zaroxolyn is indicated for the treatment of salt and water retention including: • Edema accompanying congestive heart failure; • Edema accompanying renal diseases including the nephrotic syndrome and states of diminished renal function. Zaroxolyn is also indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs of a different class. Metolazone is a quinazoline diuretic, with properties generally similar to the thiazide diuretics. The actions of Metolazone result from interference with the renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption. Metolazone acts primarily to inhibit sodium reabsorption at the cortical diluting site and to a lesser extent in the proximal convoluted tubule. Sodium and chloride ions are excreted in approximately equivalent amounts. The increased delivery of sodium to the distal tubular exchange site results in increased potassium excretion. Metolazone does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase. A proximal action of Metolazone has been shown in humans by increased excretion of phosphate and magnesium ions and by a markedly increased fractional excretion of sodium in patients with severely compromised glomerular filtration. This action has been demonstrated in animals by micropuncture studies.