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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C22H24ClN3O.ClH
Molecular Weight 418.3601
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AZELASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE, (S)-

SMILES

CN1CCC[C@@]([H])(CC1)n2c(=O)c3ccccc3c(Cc4ccc(cc4)Cl)n2.Cl

InChI

InChIKey=YEJAJYAHJQIWNU-FERBBOLQSA-N
InChI=1S/C22H24ClN3O.ClH/c1-25-13-4-5-18(12-14-25)26-22(27)20-7-3-2-6-19(20)21(24-26)15-16-8-10-17(23)11-9-16;/h2-3,6-11,18H,4-5,12-15H2,1H3;1H/t18-;/m0./s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.4609
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C22H24ClN3O
Molecular Weight 381.8992
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Azelastine (brand names AZEP, ASTEPRO, ASTELIN etc.) a phthalazine derivative, is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray for hay fever and as eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis. Azelastine is a potent antiallergic compound with histamine H1-receptor antagonist activity and a rapid onset and long duration of action. The major metabolite, desmethylazelastine, also exhibits H1- receptor antagonist activity. AZEP Nasal Spray is administered as a racemic mixture. The racemate, R- and S- enantiomers were equally potent at inhibiting eyelid histamine-induced oedema in rats, however the R-enantiomer was 2-fold less active at inhibiting eyeball histamine-induced oedema.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Azelastine is systemically absorbed and can cross the blood–brain barrier. In mice, azelastine showed a definite central action. In rats, a high dose of 100 mg/kg azelastine produced a slight suppression of the paradoxical sleep.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ASTELIN

Approved Use

Astelin Nasal Spray is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis such as rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal pruritus in adults and children 5 years and older, and for the treatment of the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis, such as rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and postnasal drip in adults and children 12 years and older.

Launch Date

8.4672001E11
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A study of intranasal distribution of azelastine hydrochloride aqueous nasal spray with different spray techniques.
2002 Oct
Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.
2003
Rapid anti-inflammatory action of azelastine eyedrops for ongoing allergic reactions.
2003 Apr
Efficacy of azelastine nasal spray in patients with an unsatisfactory response to loratadine.
2003 Aug
Effects of TAK-427 on acute nasal symptoms and nasal obstruction in guinea pig model of experimental allergic rhinitis.
2003 Aug 29
Interactions of olopatadine and selected antihistamines with model and natural membranes.
2003 Dec
Acute stress results in skin corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion, mast cell activation and vascular permeability, an effect mimicked by intradermal corticotropin-releasing hormone and inhibited by histamine-1 receptor antagonists.
2003 Mar
Histamine skin test reactivity following single and multiple doses of azelastine nasal spray in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.
2003 Sep
Treatment of nonallergic perennial rhinitis.
2004
Antiallergic activity of hesperidin is activated by intestinal microflora.
2004 Aug
Synthesis and potential anti-inflammatory activity of some tetrahydrophthalazinones.
2004 Dec
In vitro effects of astaxanthin combined with ginkgolide B on T lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic subjects.
2004 Feb
[Topical H1 antihistaminics in the therapy of acute conjunctival allergic reactions].
2004 Jan
[Respiratory allergies in the child and the adult].
2004 Jan 31
Nasal saline: placebo or drug?
2004 Jul
Intradermal nociceptin elicits itch-associated responses through leukotriene B(4) in mice.
2004 Jul
Ocular allergy treatment comparisons: azelastine and olopatadine.
2004 Jul
Vasomotor rhinitis update.
2004 Jun
Cutaneous drug eruption from cetirizine and hydroxyzine.
2004 Jun
Influences of allergic rhinitis on sleep.
2004 May
Pharmacokinetic interactions between Japanese traditional medicine (kampo) and modern medicine (III). Effect of Sho-seiryu-to on the pharmacokinetics of azelastine hydrochloride in rats.
2004 May
Efficacy and tolerability of newer antihistamines in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
2005
Open-label evaluation of azelastine nasal spray in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis.
2005 Apr
Prediction of genotoxicity of chemical compounds by statistical learning methods.
2005 Jun
Protein kinase C-alpha mediates TNF release process in RBL-2H3 mast cells.
2005 Jun
A Japanese patient with familial Mediterranean fever associated with compound heterozygosity for pyrin variant E148Q/M694I.
2005 Mar
Effectiveness of azelastine nasal spray compared with oral cetirizine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.
2005 May
Nasal obstruction, the airway, and the athlete.
2005 Oct
[Azelastine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic rhinitis].
2005 Sep
Antipruritic effect of ginsenoside rb1 and compound k in scratching behavior mouse models.
2005 Sep
The role of antihistamines in asthma management.
2006
Expression of urocortin in rat lung and its effect on pulmonary vascular permeability.
2006 Apr
Long QT syndrome in a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and auto-immune diabetes: focus on the choice of anti-H1 drugs.
2006 Dec
Synergistic effects of the anti-cholinergic R,R-glycopyrrolate with anti-inflammatory drugs.
2006 Dec 15
Pharmacotherapy of allergic eye disease.
2006 Jun
[Comparison of clinical efficacy and cost-quality of antihistamines in early treatment for Japanese cedar pollinosis].
2006 May
Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma.
2006 Nov 30
Antiallergic drugs, azelastine hydrochloride and epinastine hydrochloride, inhibit ongoing IgE secretion of rat IgE-producing hybridoma FE-3 cells.
2006 Oct 10
Impact of azelastine nasal spray on symptoms and quality of life compared with cetirizine oral tablets in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.
2006 Sep
Review of azelastine nasal spray in the treatment of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis.
2007 Apr
Duration of action of topical antiallergy drugs in a Guinea pig model of histamine-induced conjunctival vascular permeability.
2007 Aug
Nasal azelastine for self-medication: modest symptomatic relief from rhinitis.
2007 Aug
Inhibition of IgE-mediated phosphorylation of FcepsilonRIgamma protein by antiallergic drugs in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells: a novel action of antiallergic drugs.
2007 Jul
Onset of action of azelastine nasal spray compared with mometasone nasal spray and placebo in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis evaluated in an environmental exposure chamber.
2007 Jul-Aug
Antianaphylactic properties of 7-epiclusianone, a tetraprenylated benzophenone isolated from Garcinia brasiliensis.
2007 Jun
Meta-analysis of azelastine nasal spray for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
2007 Jun
Comparative efficacy of steroid nasal spray versus antihistamine nasal spray in allergic rhinitis.
2007 Mar
Azelastine hydrochloride: a review of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and tolerability.
2007 Oct
Efficacy and safety of azelastine nasal spray at a dose of 1 spray per nostril twice daily.
2007 Sep
Effect of azelastine, montelukast, and their combination on allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma.
2008
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: To male Wistar rats one single dose of 50 mg/kg AZELASTINE, (S)- was applied orally (by oral gavage): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906914
Adults and children aged 5 years and over: Each spray contains 125 ug of azelastine (as hydrochloride). One spray into each nostril twice daily as necessary (equivalent to a daily dose of 0.50 mg azelastine
Route of Administration: Nasal
In Vitro Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Sensitized cultured human mast cells (CHMCs) were pretreated with various concentrations of azelastine or olopatadine for 5 minutes. Then, CHMCs were challenged with anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the released mediators were quantitated.
The greatest inhibition of mediator release was seen when cultured human mast cells (CHMCs) were pretreated with 24 uM of azelastine.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
Record UNII
QGN83XMX5P
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
AZELASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE, (S)-
Common Name English
1(2H)-PHTHALAZINONE, 4-((4-CHLOROPHENYL)METHYL)-2-(HEXAHYDRO-1-METHYL-1H-AZEPIN-4-YL)-, MONOHYDROCHLORIDE, (S)-
Systematic Name English
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
153408-27-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
QGN83XMX5P
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
66586339
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
153408-27-6
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 23:37:37 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
RACEMATE -> ENANTIOMER