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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula N2O
Molecular Weight 44.0128
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of NITROUS OXIDE

SMILES

[N-]=[N+]=O

InChI

InChIKey=GQPLMRYTRLFLPF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/N2O/c1-2-3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula N2O
Molecular Weight 44.0128
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Nitrous oxide (N2O, laughing gas) was first discovered by the English scientist Joseph Priestly and has been used for more than 150 years. It has remained one of the most widely used anesthetics in both dental and medical applications. This small and simple inorganic chemical molecule has indisputable effects of analgesia, anxiolysis, and anesthesia that are of great clinical interest. As a general anesthetic, it is very weak and is generally not used as a single agent. It may be used as a carrier gas with oxygen in combination with more potent general inhalational gases for surgical anesthesia. In dentistry, it is commonly used as a single agent (with oxygen) for partial sedation, most commonly in pediatric dental populations. Findings to date indicate that the analgesic effect of N2O is opioid in nature, and, like morphine, may involve a myriad of neuromodulators in the spinal cord. The anxiolytic effect of N2O, on the other hand, resembles that of benzodiazepines and may be initiated at selected subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. Similarly, the anesthetic effect of N2O may involve actions at GABA(A) receptors and possibly at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as well.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ENTONOX

Approved Use

ENTONOX nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture provides the pain relieving properties of nitrous oxide with the benefits of additional oxygen without producing unconsciousness. It is a widely used analgesic for acute, short-term pain relief in a diverse range of clinical situations, from painful procedures to childbirth. Indications ENTONOX is a potent analgesic with a very rapid onset of action and is quickly eliminated from the body. It is widely used by midwives, hospitals and the ambulance service. It is used exclusively for short-term procedures inevitably involving pain, including (but not limited to): Acute trauma Tooth extraction and other brief procedures in dental work Wound and burn dressing, wound debribement and suturing Fracture and joint manipulation Colonoscopy Venopuncture Labour
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Effect of propranolol on arterial hypotension induced by halothane in the dog under nitrous oxide anaesthesia.
1967 Mar
Postoperative headache after nitrous oxide-oxygen-halothane anaesthesia.
1969 Nov
Abdominal-muscle rigidity induced by morphine and nitrous oxide.
1973 Apr
Blood-gas changes during trichloroethylene and intravenous pethidine anaesthesia.
1973 Jan
Acute vasodilation following induction of anesthesia with intravenous diazepam and nitrous oxide.
1978 Aug
Comparison of morphine and ketamine anesthetic technics for coronary surgery: a randomized study.
1978 Jan
Tolerance to and dependence on inhalational anesthetics.
1979 Jun
Convulsive reaction following enflurane anaesthesia.
1984 Dec
Seizure associated with induction of anesthesia with isoflurane.
1984 Oct
[Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and balanced anesthesia with short-acting anesthetics for ENT surgery in children].
1999
[The effect of midazolam on the memory during cesarean section and the modulation by flumazenil].
1999 Jan
Ketamine potentiates cerebrocortical damage induced by the common anaesthetic agent nitrous oxide in adult rats.
2000 Aug
Detection of the cyclic nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro- 1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX) and their degradation products in soil environments.
2001 Feb 9
[Prevention of pain on injection with propofol in children: comparison of nitrous oxide with lidocaine].
2002 Apr
Early exposure to common anesthetic agents causes widespread neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain and persistent learning deficits.
2003 Feb 1
Delayed onset refractory dystonic movements following propofol anesthesia.
2005 Jul
The anesthetics nitrous oxide and ketamine are more neurotoxic to old than to young rat brain.
2005 Jun
General anesthetics induce apoptotic neurodegeneration in the neonatal rat spinal cord.
2008 Jun
EMLA cream and nitrous oxide to alleviate pain induced by palivizumab (Synagis) intramuscular injections in infants and young children.
2008 Jun
Quinone-enhanced reduction of nitric oxide by xanthine/xanthine oxidase.
2009 May
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Each cancer cell (CCRF-CEM, K562, A549 and MDA-MB-231) was cultured in a hyperbaric chamber at 1, 2 and 3 atmosphere of 74% nitrous oxide for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 0, 0.3, 0.7, 1, 2, 5 and 10 microM methotrexate (MTX), respectively. Only the growth of the MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly reduced after a longer exposure time to nitrous oxide, but those of the other cells were not. Nitrous oxide (N2O), at anesthetically-relevant concentrations, inhibits both ionic currents and excitotoxic neurodegeneration mediated through NMDA receptors and, like other NMDA antagonists, produces neurotoxic side effects which can be prevented by drugs that enhance GABAergic inhibition.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
Record UNII
K50XQU1029
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
NITROUS OXIDE
EP   FCC   FHFI   HSDB   INCI   MART.   MI   USP   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
INS-942
Code English
DINITROGEN MONOXIDE
Common Name English
NITROGENUM OXYGENATUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
N2O
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [FHFI]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [INCI]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [MI]
Common Name English
DINITROGENII OXIDUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
INS NO.942
Code English
FACTITIOUS AIR
Common Name English
LAUGHING GAS
Common Name English
HYPONITROUS ACID ANHYDRIDE
Systematic Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [FCC]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [VANDF]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
FEMA NO. 2779
Code English
NITROGEN PROTOXIDE
Common Name English
PROTOXIDE OF NITROGEN
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [USP]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [EP]
Common Name English
E-942
Code English
NITROUS OXIDE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [HSDB]
Common Name English
NITROGEN OXIDE (N(SUB 2)O)
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [JAN]
Common Name English
DINITROGEN OXIDE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-VATC QN01AX63
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX63
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-942
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QN01AX13
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C245
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX13
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
JECFA EVALUATION INS-492
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 184.1545
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG CENTRAL
4238
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB06690
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
504
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
233-032-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C73617
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
NITROUS OXIDE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A colourless gas; odourless.Solubility: One volume dissolves in about 1.5 volumes of water at a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a temperature of 20 ?C.Category: Inhalational anaesthetic gas.Storage: Dinitrogen oxide should be kept as compressed gas or liquid at very low temperatures, in appropriate containers complying with the safety regulations of the national authority. Valves or taps should not be lubricated with oil or grease.Labelling: An ISO standard1 requires that cylinders containing Dinitrogen oxide intended for medical use should bear the name ofthe contents in legible and permanent characters and, preferably, also the molecular formula N2O.1 International Standard 32. Gas cylinders for medical use - marking for identification content. InternationalOrganization for Standardization, Switzerland, 1977.Additional information: In the analysis of medicinal gases certain tests are not intended for hospital pharmacists. They are applicable solely by laboratories equipped with specialized apparatus.
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1234579
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
K50XQU1029
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
7486
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
LACTMED
Nitrous Oxide
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
10024-97-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
948
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D009609
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
NITROUS OXIDE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
JECFA MONOGRAPH
INS-492
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB03447MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M8010
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EPA CompTox
10024-97-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
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PRODRUG -> METABOLITE ACTIVE
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ACTIVE MOIETY