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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C20H25ClN2O5.C4H4O4
Molecular Weight 524.948
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 1
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMLODIPINE MALEATE

SMILES

OC(=O)\C=C/C(O)=O.CCOC(=O)C1=C(COCCN)NC(C)=C(C1C2=C(Cl)C=CC=C2)C(=O)OC

InChI

InChIKey=TZNOWAJJWCGILX-BTJKTKAUSA-N
InChI=1S/C20H25ClN2O5.C4H4O4/c1-4-28-20(25)18-15(11-27-10-9-22)23-12(2)16(19(24)26-3)17(18)13-7-5-6-8-14(13)21;5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h5-8,17,23H,4,9-11,22H2,1-3H3;1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b;2-1-

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C20H25ClN2O5
Molecular Weight 408.876
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity ( + / - )

Molecular Formula C4H4O4
Molecular Weight 116.0722
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 1
Optical Activity NONE

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (calcium ion antagonist or slow-channel blocker) that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental data suggest that amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. The contractile processes of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells through specific ion channels. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular mooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Amlodipine is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and coronary artery disease.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
NORVASC

Approved Use

Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are calcium channel blocker and may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive and antianginal agents for the treatment of: •Hypertension (1.1) о Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. •Coronary Artery Disease (1.2) о Chronic Stable Angina о Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal's or Variant Angina) о Angiographically Documented Coronary Artery Disease in patients without heart failure or an ejection fraction < 40% 1.1 Hypertension Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including amlodipine besylate. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. 1.2 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Chronic Stable Angina Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used alone or in combination with other antianginal agents. Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal's or Variant Angina) Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of confirmed or suspected vasospastic angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal agents. Angiographically Documented CAD In patients with recently documented CAD by angiography and without heart failure or an ejection fraction <40%, amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for angina and to reduce the risk of a coronary revascularization procedure.

Launch Date

7.1254082E11
Primary
NORVASC

Approved Use

Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are calcium channel blocker and may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive and antianginal agents for the treatment of: •Hypertension (1.1) о Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. •Coronary Artery Disease (1.2) о Chronic Stable Angina о Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal's or Variant Angina) о Angiographically Documented Coronary Artery Disease in patients without heart failure or an ejection fraction < 40% 1.1 Hypertension Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including amlodipine besylate. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. 1.2 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Chronic Stable Angina Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used alone or in combination with other antianginal agents. Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal's or Variant Angina) Amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of confirmed or suspected vasospastic angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets USP may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal agents. Angiographically Documented CAD In patients with recently documented CAD by angiography and without heart failure or an ejection fraction <40%, amlodipine besylate tablets USP are indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for angina and to reduce the risk of a coronary revascularization procedure.

Launch Date

7.1254082E11
Primary
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2.3 ng/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
3 μg/L
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
5.9 μg/L
10 mg single, oral
dose: 10 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
10.4 μg/L
20 mg single, oral
dose: 20 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
3.5 ng/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
10.5 ng/mL
5 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
114 ng × h/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
187 μg × h/L
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
238 μg × h/L
10 mg single, oral
dose: 10 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
464 μg × h/L
20 mg single, oral
dose: 20 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
169 ng × h/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
214 ng × h/mL
5 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
48 h
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
36 h
10 mg single, oral
dose: 10 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
37 h
20 mg single, oral
dose: 20 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
41 h
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
47 h
5 mg 1 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2%
AMLODIPINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
75 mg single, oral (mean)
Overdose
Dose: 75 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 75 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 42 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: 42 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Disc. AE: Sinus tachycardia, Metabolic acidosis...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Sinus tachycardia (1 patient)
Metabolic acidosis (1 patient)
Hypocalcemia (1 patient)
Sources:
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral (min)
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 1250
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 1250
Sources:
Disc. AE: Headache...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Headache (1.5%)
Sources:
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 268
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 268
Sources:
DLT: Edema, Dizziness...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Edema (10.8%)
Dizziness (3.4%)
Flushing (2.6%)
Palpitation (4.5%)
Sources:
2.5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 275
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 275
Sources:
DLT: Edema, Dizziness...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Edema (1.8%)
Dizziness (1.1%)
Flushing (0.7%)
Palpitation (0.7%)
Sources:
5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 296
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 296
Sources:
DLT: Edema, Dizziness...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Edema (3%)
Dizziness (3.4%)
Flushing (1.4%)
Palpitation (1.4%)
Sources:
5.6 mg 1 times / day steady, oral (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 5.6 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5.6 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 231
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension, Pregnancy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 231
Sources:
Other AEs: Neonatal disorder NOS...
Other AEs:
Neonatal disorder NOS (11 patient)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Hypocalcemia 1 patient
Disc. AE
75 mg single, oral (mean)
Overdose
Dose: 75 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 75 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 42 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: 42 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Metabolic acidosis 1 patient
Disc. AE
75 mg single, oral (mean)
Overdose
Dose: 75 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 75 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 42 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: 42 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Sinus tachycardia 1 patient
Disc. AE
75 mg single, oral (mean)
Overdose
Dose: 75 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 75 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 42 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: 42 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Headache 1.5%
Disc. AE
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral (min)
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 1250
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 1250
Sources:
Edema 10.8%
DLT
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 268
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 268
Sources:
Flushing 2.6%
DLT
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 268
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 268
Sources:
Dizziness 3.4%
DLT
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 268
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 268
Sources:
Palpitation 4.5%
DLT
10 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 268
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 268
Sources:
Flushing 0.7%
DLT
2.5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 275
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 275
Sources:
Palpitation 0.7%
DLT
2.5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 275
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 275
Sources:
Dizziness 1.1%
DLT
2.5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 275
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 275
Sources:
Edema 1.8%
DLT
2.5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 2.5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 275
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 275
Sources:
Flushing 1.4%
DLT
5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 296
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 296
Sources:
Palpitation 1.4%
DLT
5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 296
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 296
Sources:
Edema 3%
DLT
5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 296
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 296
Sources:
Dizziness 3.4%
DLT
5 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 296
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 296
Sources:
Neonatal disorder NOS 11 patient
5.6 mg 1 times / day steady, oral (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 5.6 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5.6 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 231
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypertension, Pregnancy
Age Group: adult
Sex: F
Population Size: 231
Sources:
OverviewDrug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
moderate [IC50 11.3 uM]
no [IC50 >133 uM]
no [IC50 >133 uM]
no [IC50 >133 uM]
no [IC50 >133 uM]
no
strong [Ki 0.13 uM]
strong [Ki 1.95 uM]
strong
weak [IC50 57 uM]
weak
weak
weak
weak
yes (co-administration study)
Comment: A prospective study in renal transplant patients (N=11) showed on an average of 40% increase in trough cyclosporine levels when concomitantly treated with amlodipine.
Page: (Label 2) 24
yes [IC50 22 uM]
yes [Inhibition 2 uM]
yes
yes
yes
yes (co-administration study)
Comment: A prospective study in healthy Chinese volunteers (N=9) with CYP3A5 expressers showed a 2.5-to 4-fold increase in tacrolimus exposure when concomitantly administered with amlodipine.
Page: (Label 2) 24
Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
major
major
yes (co-administration study)
Comment: Co-administration of the moderate CYP3A inhibitor diltiazem increases the exposure to amlodipine 1.6-fold., Erythromycin co-administration in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure.
Page: (ClinPharm) 21, 26, (Label 2) 23
yes
yes (pharmacogenomic study)
Comment: Following administration of amlodipine, blood pressure in all patients decreased. The magnitude of the change in blood pressure varied among patients. Individuals with the CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism exhibited the highest change in blood pressure, followed by CYP3A5*4, CYP3A5*1/*1, and CYP3A5*6
yes
yes (pharmacogenomic study)
Comment: Amlodipine pharmacokinetics was affected by the genetic polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene in humans.
Tox targets
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A double-blind evaluation of the effect of amlodipine on ambulatory blood pressure.
1991
24-hour blood pressure control with the once-daily calcium antagonist amlodipine.
1991
The unique binding properties of amlodipine: a long-acting calcium antagonist.
1991 Aug
Effects of amlodipine on nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression and coronary microcirculation in prolonged nitric oxide blockade-induced hypertensive rats.
1999 Aug
[Effects of benidipine hydrochloride (Coniel) on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine concentration in spontaneously hypertensive rats].
1999 May
Role of nitric oxide in the control of cardiac oxygen consumption in B(2)-kinin receptor knockout mice.
1999 Oct
[Effects of calcium antagonists on atherosclerosis progression and intima media thickness].
2000
Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to evaluate the selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist, telmisartan, and other antihypertensive drugs.
2000
Amlodipine induced-photosensitivity presenting as telangiectasia.
2000 Jun
Restenosis and clinical outcome in patients treated with amlodipine after angioplasty: results from the Coronary AngioPlasty Amlodipine REStenosis Study (CAPARES).
2000 Mar 1
Effect of indomethacin on blood pressure in elderly people with essential hypertension well controlled on amlodipine or enalapril.
2000 Nov
[Extrapyramidal reactions after epidural droperidol].
2000 Oct
Rationale, design, methods and baseline demography of participants of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. ASCOT investigators.
2001 Jun
Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover comparison of five classes of antihypertensive drugs.
2002 Apr
Mechanisms of plaque stabilization for the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine: review of the evidence.
2002 Dec
Combination therapy of amlodipine/benazepril versus monotherapy of amlodipine in a practice-based setting.
2002 Jun
[Amlodipine-induced acute hepatitis].
2002 Jun-Jul
Reversible ageusia induced by losartan: a case report.
2002 May
The effects of antihypertensive agents on the survival rate of polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD rats.
2002 Nov
Amlodipine reduces blood pressure and headache frequency in cocaine-dependent outpatients.
2002 Oct-Dec
Synergistic effect of nicorandil and amlodipine on lysosomal hydrolases during experimental myocardial infarction in rats.
2003 Sep
Calcium channel blockades exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects by augmentation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in the N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertensive rat aorta: vasoprotective effects beyond the blood pressure-lowering effects of amlodipine and manidipine.
2005 Aug
Exercise-related syncope induced by vasodilator therapy in an elderly hypertensive patient.
2005 Feb
Clinic blood pressure responses to two amlodipine salt formulations, adipate and besylate, in adult Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 8-week comparison.
2005 Jun
Prediction of genotoxicity of chemical compounds by statistical learning methods.
2005 Jun
An economic evaluation of the 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of mild-to-moderate hypertension in Greece.
2005 Sep
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema of the stomach and small intestine: a case report.
2006 Dec
Incidence and predictors of angioedema in elderly hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).
2006 Sep
Two multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of amlodipine and valsartan in combination and as monotherapy in adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.
2007 Apr
G1 cell cycle arrest by amlodipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blocker, in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.
2007 Apr 1
Results of a comparative, phase III, 12-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and amlodipine versus amlodipine monotherapy in Indian adults with stage II hypertension.
2007 Dec
Dysgeusia with amlodipine--a case report.
2007 Feb
Antihypertensive efficacy of amlodipine and losartan after two 'missed' doses in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.
2007 Nov-Dec
Improved attainment of blood pressure and cholesterol goals using single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin in African Americans: the CAPABLE trial.
2008 Jan
Amlodipine inhibits cell proliferation via PKD1-related pathway.
2008 May 2
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Adult recommended starting dose: 5 mg once daily with maximum dose 10 mg once daily. Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily. Pediatric starting dose: 2.5 mg to 5 mg once daily. Important Limitation: Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied.
Route of Administration: Oral
amlodipine was effective against A. castellanii and B. mandrillaris at 250μM
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
Record UNII
CQ27G2BZJM
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
AMLODIPINE MALEATE
MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   WHO-DD  
USAN  
Official Name English
AMLODIPINE MALEATE [MART.]
Common Name English
UK-48,340-11
Code English
AMVAZ
Brand Name English
3,5-PYRIDINEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-((2-AMINOETHOXY)METHYL)-4-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-1,4-DIHYDRO-6-METHYL-, 3-ETHYL 5-METHYL ESTER, (±)-, (Z)-2-BUTENEDIOATE (1:1)
Common Name English
Amlodipine maleate [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
AMLODIPINE MALEATE [MI]
Common Name English
UK-48340-11
Code English
AMLODIPINE MALEATE [USAN]
Common Name English
3-ETHYL 5-METHYL 2-(2-AMINOETHOXYMETHYL)-4-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-1,4-DIHYDRO-6-METHYL-3,5-PYRIDINEDICARBOXYLATE MALEATE (1:1)
Systematic Name English
AMLODIPINE MALEATE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NCI_THESAURUS C333
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
NCI_THESAURUS
C65230
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M1757
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
EVMPD
SUB00476MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DBSALT001056
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
6435922
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
CQ27G2BZJM
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID601027708
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000089370
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
USAN
W-106
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
88150-47-4
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1491
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 22:54:33 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
ENANTIOMER -> RACEMATE
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY