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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula Al
Molecular Weight 26.9815
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ALUMINUM

SMILES

[Al]

InChI

InChIKey=AZDRQVAHHNSJOQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/Al.3H

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula Al
Molecular Weight 26.9815
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Aluminum is an element with an atomic number of 13. On the periodic table of elements its symbol is Al. It belongs to a group of metals including lead and tin. Aluminum has been used for a long time. During Ancient Egypt, aluminum oxides were used in their glazes and pottery. The Romans also used this metallic element. During the 1800s, advances in research made it possible to produce pure aluminum. Aluminium is used in a huge variety of products including cans, foils, kitchen utensils, window frames, beer kegs and aeroplane parts. This is because of its particular properties. It has low density, is non-toxic, has a high thermal conductivity, has excellent corrosion resistance and can be easily cast, machined and formed. It is also non-magnetic and non-sparking. It is the second most malleable metal and the sixth most ductile. It is often used as an alloy because aluminium itself is not particularly strong. Alloys with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon are lightweight but strong. They are very important in the construction of aeroplanes and other forms of transport. Aluminium is a good electrical conductor and is often used in electrical transmission lines. It is cheaper than copper and weight for weight is almost twice as good a conductor. When evaporated in a vacuum, aluminium forms a highly reflective coating for both light and heat. It does not deteriorate, like a silver coating would. These aluminium coatings have many uses, including telescope mirrors, decorative paper, packages and toys. Aluminium has no known biological role. Aluminium can accumulate in the body, and a link with Alzheimer’s disease has been suggested but not proven. Aluminum-containing raw materials are used safely and extensively in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter (OTC) drug products. In cosmetics, they function as pigments and thickening agents. Aluminum compounds also function as active ingredients in OTC drugs such as antacids and antiperspirants. Aluminum-containing ingredients have several uses in cosmetics and personal care products. Aluminum salts are used as antiperspirants to control sweat. Antiperspirant ingredients are regulated as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A manufacturer can only use the aluminum active ingredients that have been approved as safe and effective by the FDA as listed in the OTC antiperspirant monograph. These products can only be used according to the guidelines established in this monograph. Aluminum may also be present in cosmetic colors. Aluminum powder is FDA approved and may be safely used in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, [21 CFR §73.2645 Aluminum powder.]. In addition, aluminum is a common component in other cosmetic colors where it may be used as a substrate upon which another color is precipitated. Because the resulting color is not water-soluble, this can prevent ‘bleeding’, for example with lipstick. There are other uses of aluminum-containing ingredients in cosmetics, such as use as thickening agents. Under federal law, the safety of all ingredients must be substantiated by the manufacturer of the product before it is placed on the market. Aluminum compounds (alum) are the most widely used adjuvants in veterinary and human vaccines. Alum facilitates effectiveand long-lasting protective immunity in hosts, mainly by inducing antibody responses. Alum was found toinduce endogenous CD4+T cells and antibody production as well as to induce priming of CD8+T cells. These effects are shown to beindependent of the inflammasome. Novel findings of unexpected beneficial effects of decreased HBV (Hepatitis B virus) viral load and HBeAg seroconversion in chronically infected patients, as well as significant tumor suppression in experimental mice following multiple alum-only injections were examined, revealing alum's potential clinical applications beyond its use as a simple tool in antigen preparation.

Approval Year

PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Exacerbation of aluminium encephalopathy after treatment with desferrioxamine.
1989
Dose-dependent effects of aluminum on osteocalcin synthesis in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2 cells in culture.
1992 Dec
Comparative binding study of aluminum and chromium to human transferrin. Effect of iron.
1992 Jan-Mar
Aluminum alters iron and manganese uptake and regulation of surface transferrin receptors in primary rat oligodendrocyte cultures.
1996 May 6
Zinc allosterically modulates antagonist binding to cloned D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
1997 May
Aluminum is a weak agonist for the calcium-sensing receptor.
1999 May
Transferrin-mediated uptake of aluminium by human parathyroid cells results in reduced parathyroid hormone secretion.
2000 Sep
Neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease: is there an etiological relationship?
2001 Nov
Aluminium-induced impairment of Ca2+ modulatory action on GABA transport in brain cortex nerve terminals.
2003 Sep 15
Structure of aluminium-bound ovotransferrin at 2.15 Angstroms resolution.
2005 Dec
The distinct erythropoietin functions that promote cell survival and proliferation are affected by aluminum exposure through mechanisms involving erythropoietin receptor.
2005 Mar 22
Synergistic effects of iron and aluminum on stress-related gene expression in primary human neural cells.
2005 Nov
Prognostic significance of low serum levels of Clara cell phospholipid-binding protein in occupational aluminium neurotoxicity.
2005 Sep
Effects of select PM-associated metals on alveolar macrophage phosphorylated ERK1 and -2 and iNOS expression during ongoing alteration in iron homeostasis.
2006 May
Evidence for centrophenoxine as a protective drug in aluminium induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in rat brain.
2006 Oct
Susceptibility of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase to aluminium induced oxidative damage.
2009 Jan 31
Evaluation of the protective role of melatonin on the behavioral effects of aluminum in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
2009 Nov 9
Molecular dynamics simulations of iron- and aluminum-loaded serum transferrin: protonation of Tyr188 is necessary to prompt metal release.
2012 Sep 4
Assessment of infantile mineral imbalances in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
2013 Nov 11
Aluminum trichloride inhibits osteoblast mineralization via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.
2016 Jan 25
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In the phase II B clinical trial, 74 hepatitis B virus patients with a viral load 4100 000 copies/mL and a serum ALT (alanine transaminase) oftwo to ten times the upper limit of normal were injected with 1 mL 0.1% Aluminum emulsion intramuscularly once every four weeks, for a total of six injections.
Route of Administration: Intramuscular
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
Record UNII
CPD4NFA903
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
ALUMINUM
HSDB   INCI   MI  
INCI  
Official Name English
METALLIC ALUMINUM
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM
WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
CI 77000 [INCI]
Common Name English
ALUMINUM [MI]
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM METALLICUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM (E 173)
Common Name English
INS NO.173
Code English
Aluminium [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ALUMINUM [INCI]
Common Name English
DIAMOND PIECE H TYPE, SILVER
Brand Name English
CI 77000
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
ALUMINIUM METAL
Common Name English
ALUMINUM POWDER
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
ALUMINUM [HSDB]
Common Name English
C.I. 77000
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM METALLICUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
E-173
Code English
ALUMINUM POWDER [INCI]
Common Name English
INS-173
Code English
COSMETIC ALUMINUM POWDER VP-1
Brand Name English
ALUMINUM METAL
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CFR 21 CFR 178.3297
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC D10AX01
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
CFR 21 CFR 176.170
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
DSLD 264 (Number of products:9)
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 111
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C637
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
7429-90-5
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID3040273
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MESH
D000535
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000092806
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
28984
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01370
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1311504
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
MERCK INDEX
M1589
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
CHEBI
33629
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
5359268
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
HSDB
507
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C68232
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
CPD4NFA903
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
JECFA EVALUATION
INS-173
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-072-3
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DAILYMED
CPD4NFA903
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB12808MIG
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB130454
Created by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Wed Jul 05 23:22:07 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY