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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C10H16O
Molecular Weight 152.2338
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)

SMILES

CC1(C)[C@]2([H])CC[C@@]1(C)C(=O)C2

InChI

InChIKey=DSSYKIVIOFKYAU-XCBNKYQSSA-N
InChI=1S/C10H16O/c1-9(2)7-4-5-10(9,3)8(11)6-7/h7H,4-6H2,1-3H3/t7-,10+/m1/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C10H16O
Molecular Weight 152.2338
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 2 / 2
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Camphor is a bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially cinnamomum camphora. Topically, camphor is used to relieve pain. It has been used to treat warts, cold sores, hemorrhoids, and osteoarthritis. It has also been applied topically as an analgesic and an antipruritic. It has been used as a counterirritant, and to increase local blood flow. Camphor has frequently been used topically to treat respiratory tract diseases involving mucous membrane inflammation. It is sometimes used topically to treat cardiac symptoms. Camphor is also used topically as an eardrop, and for treating minor burns. In inhalation therapy, camphor is used as an antitussive. Orally, camphor is used as an expectorant, antiflatulent, and for treating respiratory tract diseases. Today, most camphor is synthetic. It is approved by the FDA as a topical antitussive. Camphor is produced synthetically from the oil of turpentine. It has been used for centuries for its medicinal features, in religious rituals, and in cooking. It is no longer used as pesticide. In 1982, the US Food and Drug Administration restricted commercial products intended for medicinal use to contain <11% camphor.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Camphor is highly lipid soluble and easily crosses the blood–brain barrier. Camphor is a CNS stimulant whose effects range from mild excitation to grand-mal convulsions or status epilepticus. These effects result from excitation of the cerebrum and lower structures of the CNS.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Palliative
Camphor ointment

Approved Use

Camphor ointment is used for: Treating pain and itching associated with minor skin irritations. Camphor ointment is a topical analgesic. It works by temporarily relieving itching and pain.
Primary
CAMPHOR, EUCALYPTUS OIL AND MENTHOL - camphor, eucalyptus oil and menthol ointment CVS

Approved Use

Uses - on chest and throat, temporarily relieves cough due to common cold - On muscles and joints, temporarily relieves minor aches and pains
Palliative
Tetramex Spray

Approved Use

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: For temporary relief of minor aches and pains of the muscles and joints associated with simple backache, arthritis, strains, bruises and sprains.
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
41 ng/mL
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
302 ng × h/mL
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
6.5 h
374.4 mg single, topical
dose: 374.4 mg
route of administration: Topical
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered: MENTHOL, UNSPECIFIED FORM
[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR, (-)-|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)|[NO STEREO] CAMPHOR (NATURAL) plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells.
1999 Dec
Coordinate alterations in the expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, p300, and Rad51 in response to genotoxic and other stresses in human prostate cancer cells.
1999 Jun 15
Effects of protein binding on the in vitro activity of antitumour acridine derivatives and related anticancer drugs.
2000
Activity of a novel camptothecin analogue, homocamptothecin, in camptothecin-resistant cell lines with topoisomerase I alterations.
2000 Dec 1
p53-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells after treatment with camptothecin.
2000 Mar
Bcl-2 independence of flavopiridol-induced apoptosis. Mitochondrial depolarization in the absence of cytochrome c release.
2000 Oct 13
Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11: the body mass index, age and sex are independent predictors of pharmacokinetic parameters of CPT-11.
2001
Phase I study of irofulven (MGI 114), an acylfulvene illudin analog, in patients with acute leukemia.
2001
Chemoradiation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
2001
Irinotecan plus fluorouracil/leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer: a new survival standard.
2001
Irinotecan (CPT-11): recent developments and future directions--colorectal cancer and beyond.
2001
Irinotecan: a new agent comes of age.
2001
Gemcitabine: progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
2001
Drug-induced stabilization of covalent DNA topoisomerase I-DNA intermediates. DNA cleavage assays.
2001
Validation study of assay method for DX-8951 and its metabolite in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
2001 Apr
DNA double-strand breaks associated with replication forks are predominantly repaired by homologous recombination involving an exchange mechanism in mammalian cells.
2001 Apr 13
Monochloramine inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis with an increase in DNA aberration.
2001 Apr 15
A link between apoptosis and degree of phosphorylation of high mobility group A1a protein in leukemic cells.
2001 Apr 6
Modulation of camptothecin analogs in the treatment of cancer: a review.
2001 Feb
Adjuvant therapy of colon cancer.
2001 Feb
Prospective phase II trial of iriontecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in combination as salvage therapy for advanced colorectal cancer.
2001 Feb
Different susceptibilities of postmitotic checkpoint-proficient and -deficient Balb / 3T3 cells to ICRF-193, a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II.
2001 Feb
High-Performance liquid chromatographic analysis of lactone and hydroxy acid of new antitumor drug, DX-8951 (exatecan), in mouse plasma.
2001 Feb
Effectiveness of water soluble poly(L-glutamic acid)-camptothecin conjugate against resistant human lung cancer xenografted in nude mice.
2001 Feb
Antitumor activity of the rapamycin analog CCI-779 in human primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma models as single agent and in combination chemotherapy.
2001 Feb 15
Irinotecan and chronomodulated infusion of 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: a phase I study.
2001 Feb 15
Continuous measurement of targeted promoter activity by a secreted bioluminescence reporter, Vargula hilgendorfii luciferase.
2001 Feb 15
Deacetylase activity associates with topoisomerase II and is necessary for etoposide-induced apoptosis.
2001 Feb 16
Breast cancer resistance protein directly confers SN-38 resistance of lung cancer cells.
2001 Feb 9
Irinotecan in combined-modality therapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
2001 Jan
Rationale and dose-finding studies of the combination of irinotecan and a taxane on a weekly schedule.
2001 Jan
[A case of small cell carcinoma of esophagus successfully treated by chemotherapy with CPT-11 and CDDP].
2001 Jan
Influence of cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapeutic drugs on epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and LewisY antigen expression.
2001 Jan
Characterization of a novel mechanism accounting for the adverse cholinergic effects of the anticancer drug irinotecan.
2001 Jan
A phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
2001 Jan 1
Apoptosis enhancement by the HIV-1 Nef protein.
2001 Jan 1
The HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor CI1033 enhances cytotoxicity of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and topotecan by inhibiting breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug efflux.
2001 Jan 15
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 reduces chemotherapy-associated mortality and enhances cell survival in cells expressing a transfected GLP-2 receptor.
2001 Jan 15
Irinotecan plus fluorouracil and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer.
2001 Jan 25
Differential effects of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor NU1025 on topoisomerase I and II inhibitor cytotoxicity in L1210 cells in vitro.
2001 Jan 5
The changing face of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.
2001 Jan 5
Topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes in human colorectal cancer xenografts with different p53 and microsatellite instability status: relation with their sensitivity to CTP-11.
2001 Jan-Feb
Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of exatecan mesylate (DX-8951f): a novel camptothecin analog.
2001 Mar 1
Carrier and dose effects on the pharmacokinetics of T-0128, a camptothecin analogue-carboxymethyl dextran conjugate, in non-tumor- and tumor-bearing rats.
2001 Mar 12
Roles of NF-kappaB and 26 S proteasome in apoptotic cell death induced by topoisomerase I and II poisons in human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.
2001 Mar 16
Hippocampal neurons of mice deficient in DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit increased vulnerability to DNA damage, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity.
2001 Mar 5
Inhibition of Flp recombinase by the topoisomerase I-targeting drugs, camptothecin and NSC-314622.
2001 Mar 9
Potentiation of antitumor activity of irinotecan by chemically modified oligonucleotides.
2001 May
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Subcutaneous: The dose of subcutaneously injected camphor required to produce convulsions in mice was 600 mg/kg http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443062414000102
Dosing: Adult Cough: Inhalation: Inhale via vaporizer up to 3 times per day. Pain: Topical cream: Apply to affected area up to 4 times per day for 2 weeks. For maximum benefit, use daily for at least 2 weeks and continue to use daily as needed thereafter. Pruritus/Pain: Topical gel: Apply to affected area up to 3 to 4 times per day.
Route of Administration: Topical
1 mM camphor partially inhibited the AITC (20 uM)-induced hTRPA1 current in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
Edited
by admin
on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
Record UNII
5TJD82A1ET
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, DL-
Common Name English
2-BORNANONE
Systematic Name English
DL-CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, RACEMIC
EP  
Common Name English
(+/-)-CAMPHOR
Systematic Name English
CAMPHOR, (+/-)-
Systematic Name English
1,7,7-TRIMETHYLBICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTAN-2-ONE
Systematic Name English
FEMA NO. 4513
Code English
(1RS,4RS)-1,7,7-TRIMETHYLBICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTAN-2-ONE
Systematic Name English
BICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTANE-2-ONE, 1,7,7-TRIMETHYL-
Systematic Name English
CAMPHOR [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
GUM CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR, RACEMIC [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
2-CAMPHANONE
Systematic Name English
DL-CAMPHOR [JAN]
Common Name English
SYNTHETIC CAMPHOR
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [MI]
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [HSDB]
Common Name English
CAMPHOR [INCI]
Common Name English
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG BANK
DB01744
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-945-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
76-22-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
37
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
76-22-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1371994
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
ChEMBL
CHEMBL504760
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB11780MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C28136
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
5TJD82A1ET
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M3004
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:10:56 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
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PARENT -> CONSTITUENT MAY BE PRESENT
ASSAY (GC)
PARENT -> CONSTITUENT ALWAYS PRESENT
ASSAY (GC)
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PARENT -> IMPURITY
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (GC)
USP
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ACTIVE MOIETY