U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C27H36N2O5
Molecular Weight 468.5851
Optical Activity ( + )
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of IVABRADINE

SMILES

COC1=C(OC)C=C2[C@@H](CN(C)CCCN3CCC4=CC(OC)=C(OC)C=C4CC3=O)CC2=C1

InChI

InChIKey=ACRHBAYQBXXRTO-OAQYLSRUSA-N
InChI=1S/C27H36N2O5/c1-28(17-21-11-20-14-25(33-4)26(34-5)16-22(20)21)8-6-9-29-10-7-18-12-23(31-2)24(32-3)13-19(18)15-27(29)30/h12-14,16,21H,6-11,15,17H2,1-5H3/t21-/m1/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C27H36N2O5
Molecular Weight 468.5851
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 1 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Description
Curator's Comment: description was created based on several sources, including https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16451297

Ivabradine (CORLANOR®) is a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker that reduces the spontaneous pacemaker activity of the cardiac sinus node by selectively inhibiting the If-current, resulting in heart rate reduction at concentrations that do not affect other cardiac ionic currents. Specific heart-rate lowering with ivabradine (CORLANOR®) reduces myocardial oxygen demand, simultaneously improving oxygen supply. It has no negative inotropic or lusitropic effects, preserving ventricular contractility, and does not change any major electrophysiological parameters unrelated to heart rate.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment: Ivabradine (CORLANOR®) can also inhibit the retinal current Ih. Ih is involved in curtailing retinal responses to bright light stimuli. Under triggering circumstances (e.g., rapid changes in luminosity), partial inhibition of Ih by ivabradine (CORLANOR®) may underlie the luminous phenomena experienced by patients. Luminous phenomena (phosphenes) are described as a transient enhanced brightness in a limited area of the visual field.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Palliative
CORLANOR

Approved Use

Corlanor is indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, who are in sinus rhythm with resting heart rate ≥ 70 beats per minute and either are on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers or have a contraindication to beta-blocker use. Corlanor (ivabradine) is a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, who are in sinus rhythm with resting heart rate ≥ 70 beats per minute and either are on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers or have a contraindication to beta-blocker use.

Launch Date

1.429056E12
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
35.98 ng/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
IVABRADINE blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: UNKNOWN
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
171.19 μg × h/mL
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
IVABRADINE blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: UNKNOWN
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
5.03 h
5 mg single, oral
dose: 5 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
IVABRADINE blood
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: UNKNOWN
sex: FEMALE / MALE
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Other AEs: Nausea, Vision disorders...
Other AEs:
Nausea (1 patient)
Vision disorders (2 patients)
Abdominal pain (1 patient)
Leg pain (1 patient)
Fatigue (1 patient)
Sources:
150 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 150 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 150 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 19 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 19 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Dizziness, Nausea...
Other AEs:
Dizziness (1 patient)
Nausea (1 patient)
Vomiting (1 patient)
Sources:
250 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 250 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 250 mg
Sources:
unknown, 26 years
n = 1
Health Status: unknown
Age Group: 26 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 27.7 years
n = 9
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 27.7 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 9
Sources:
280 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 280 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 280 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 47 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 47 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Other AEs: Drowsiness...
Other AEs:
Drowsiness (1 patient)
Sources:
10 mg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
n = 14
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: low cardiac output syndrome
Age Group: 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 14
Sources:
Disc. AE: Bradyarrhythmia, Heart rate decreased...
Other AEs: Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, Sustained ventricular tachycardia...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Bradyarrhythmia (1 patient)
Heart rate decreased (3 patients)
Other AEs:
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (5 patients)
Sustained ventricular tachycardia (1 patient)
Sources:
5 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 171
unhealthy, adult
n = 5477
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 5477
Sources: Page: p. 171
Disc. AE: Atrial fibrillation, Heart rate increased...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Atrial fibrillation (2.5%)
Heart rate increased (0.5%)
Bradycardia (0.4%)
Sources: Page: p. 171
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Abdominal pain 1 patient
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Fatigue 1 patient
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Leg pain 1 patient
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Nausea 1 patient
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Vision disorders 2 patients
10 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18–70 years
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: asthma
Age Group: 18–70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Dizziness 1 patient
150 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 150 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 150 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 19 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 19 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Nausea 1 patient
150 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 150 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 150 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 19 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 19 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Vomiting 1 patient
150 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 150 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 150 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 19 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 19 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Drowsiness 1 patient
280 mg single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 280 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 280 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, 47 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 47 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Sustained ventricular tachycardia 1 patient
10 mg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
n = 14
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: low cardiac output syndrome
Age Group: 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 14
Sources:
Bradyarrhythmia 1 patient
Disc. AE
10 mg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
n = 14
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: low cardiac output syndrome
Age Group: 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 14
Sources:
Heart rate decreased 3 patients
Disc. AE
10 mg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
n = 14
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: low cardiac output syndrome
Age Group: 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 14
Sources:
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 5 patients
10 mg 1 times / day multiple, intravenous
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
n = 14
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: low cardiac output syndrome
Age Group: 61 years (range: 59 - 67 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 14
Sources:
Bradycardia 0.4%
Disc. AE
5 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 171
unhealthy, adult
n = 5477
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 5477
Sources: Page: p. 171
Heart rate increased 0.5%
Disc. AE
5 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 171
unhealthy, adult
n = 5477
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 5477
Sources: Page: p. 171
Atrial fibrillation 2.5%
Disc. AE
5 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 5 mg, 2 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 171
unhealthy, adult
n = 5477
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 5477
Sources: Page: p. 171
OverviewDrug as perpetrator​Drug as victim

Drug as victim

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
no [Km 310 uM]
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes (co-administration study)
Comment: After coadministration of ivabradine with the CYP3A4 inducer St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) peak and total systemic exposures were reduced ~2-fold.
Page: 6.0
Tox targets
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A single intravenous dose of ivabradine, a novel I(f) inhibitor, lowers heart rate but does not depress left ventricular function in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.
2003
Effect of chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine on carotid and aortic structure and function in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
2003 Jul-Aug
Long-term heart rate reduction induced by the selective I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine improves left ventricular function and intrinsic myocardial structure in congestive heart failure.
2004 Apr 6
Effect of graded heart rate reduction with ivabradine on myocardial oxygen consumption and diastolic time in exercising dogs.
2004 Jan
[Selection and pharmacological characterisation of Procoralan, a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker If current].
2004 Sep-Oct
Chronic heart rate reduction remodels ion channel transcripts in the mouse sinoatrial node but not in the ventricle.
2005 Dec 14
Future directions: what data do we need?
2006
Novel If current inhibitor ivabradine: safety considerations.
2006
Clinical perspectives of heart rate slowing for coronary event reduction and heart failure.
2006
[Selective I(f) channel inhibition: an alternative for treating coronary artery disease?].
2006 Feb
Comparative effects of ivabradine, a selective heart rate-lowering agent, and propranolol on systemic and cardiac haemodynamics at rest and during exercise.
2006 Feb
Serious workings of the funny current.
2006 Jan-Apr
Ivabradine: a selective If current inhibitor in the treatment of stable angina.
2006 Nov
Rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabradine in patients with stable coronary artery disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: the morBidity-mortality EvAlUaTion of the I(f) inhibitor ivabradine in patients with coronary disease and left ventricULar dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL) study.
2006 Nov
Heart rate lowering by inhibition of the pacemaker current: a new therapeutic perspective in cardiovascular disease.
2006 Oct
Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between omeprazole or lansoprazole and ivabradine in healthy volunteers: an open-label, randomized, crossover, pharmacokinetic interaction clinical trial.
2006 Oct
Preclinical results with I(f) current inhibition by ivabradine.
2007
The funny current: cellular basis for the control of heart rate.
2007
Long-term safety and efficacy of ivabradine in patients with chronic stable angina.
2007
Ivabradine: new drug. Best avoided in stable angina.
2007 Apr
Modulation of rate by autonomic agonists in SAN cells involves changes in diastolic depolarization and the pacemaker current.
2007 Jul
Ivabradine: a new strategy for management of stable angina.
2007 Jun
Patents

Sample Use Guides

The recommended starting dose of CORLANOR® is 5 mg twice daily with meals.
Route of Administration: Oral
The potential subtype-specificity of the sinus node inhibitors cilobradine, ivabradine, and zatebradine using cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels was tested. All three substances blocked the slow inward current through HCN1, HCN2, HCN3, and HCN4 human channels. There was no subtype-specificity for the steady-state block, with mean IC50 values of 0.99, 2.25, and 1.96 microM for cilobradine, ivabradine, and zatebradine, respectively.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
Record UNII
3H48L0LPZQ
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
IVABRADINE
DASH   EMA EPAR   INN   MART.   MI   USAN   WHO-DD  
INN   USAN  
Official Name English
S-16257
Code English
Ivabradine [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
IVABRADINE [MI]
Common Name English
IVABRADINE [EMA EPAR]
Common Name English
IVABRADINE [MART.]
Common Name English
IVABRADINE [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
3-(3-((((7S)-3,4-DIMETHOXYBICYCLO(4.2.0)OCTA-1,3,5-TRIEN-7-YL)METHYL)METHYLAMINO)PROPYL)-1,3,4,5-TETRAHYDRO-7,8-DIMETHOXY-2H-3-BENZAZEPIN-2-ONE
Systematic Name English
IVABRADINE [USAN]
Common Name English
ivabradine [INN]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-ATC C07FX06
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 511915
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
NCI_THESAURUS C47793
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC C07FX05
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
WHO-VATC QC01EB17
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 631818
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
WHO-ATC C01EB17
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
NDF-RT N0000191544
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
Code System Code Type Description
DAILYMED
3H48L0LPZQ
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
IUPHAR
2357
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C65995
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
85969
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
DTXSID2048240
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL471737
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000085462
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
132999
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
NDF-RT
N0000191546
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Antagonists [MoA]
CAS
155974-00-8
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB09083
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
USAN
BC-97
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CHEBI
85966
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08357MIG
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
INN
7523
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
m6564
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY Merck Index
FDA UNII
3H48L0LPZQ
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
IVABRADINE
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
3312
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1649480
Created by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 15 16:02:01 UTC 2023
PRIMARY RxNorm
Related Record Type Details
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
EXCRETED UNCHANGED
About 4% of unchanged drug was recovered either in urine or in feces, suggesting hepatic metabolism as the major route of elimination. Radioactivity associated with metabolites was excreted to a similar degree in feces (around 45%) and urine (around 37%).
FECAL; URINE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
TARGET -> INHIBITOR
IC50
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
BINDER->LIGAND
BINDING
Related Record Type Details
METABOLITE ACTIVE -> PARENT
20 mg repeated oral doses in eighteen healthy male volunteers; IVABRADINE 85 + 46 ng/mL
Cmax
PLASMA
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Name Property Type Amount Referenced Substance Defining Parameters References
Volume of Distribution PHARMACOKINETIC ORAL ADMINISTRATION

Tmax PHARMACOKINETIC ORAL ADMINISTRATION