U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C17H18FN3O3.ClH
Molecular Weight 367.802
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS

SMILES

Cl.OC(=O)C1=CN(C2CC2)C3=CC(N4CCNCC4)=C(F)C=C3C1=O

InChI

InChIKey=DIOIOSKKIYDRIQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C17H18FN3O3.ClH/c18-13-7-11-14(8-15(13)20-5-3-19-4-6-20)21(10-1-2-10)9-12(16(11)22)17(23)24;/h7-10,19H,1-6H2,(H,23,24);1H

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula ClH
Molecular Weight 36.461
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C17H18FN3O3
Molecular Weight 331.3415
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry No
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description
Curator's Comment: description was created based on several sources, including https://www.drugs.com/ciprofloxacin.html | https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02598362 | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25951434

Ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is the synthetic antimicrobial agent for oral or intravenous administration. Ciprofloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both Type II topoisomerases), which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid. In the United States, ciprofloxacin is pregnancy category C. This category includes drugs for which no adequate and well-controlled studies in human pregnancy exist, and for which animal studies have suggested the potential for harm to the fetus, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks. Fluoroquinolones have been reported as present in a mother's milk and thus passed on to the nursing child. Oral and intravenous ciprofloxacin is approved by the FDA for use in children for only two indications due to the risk of permanent injury to the musculoskeletal system: Inhalational anthrax (postexposure) and Complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli.

Originator

Sources: Proc. Int. Congr. Chemother., 13th (1983), 5, 112/1-112/4.
Curator's Comment: # Bayer

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
150.0 nM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Curative
CIPRO

Approved Use

Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations. Adult Patients Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis. Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes. Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis. Infectious Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii † , Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei † when antibacterial therapy is indicated. Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. NOTE: The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated. Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Pediatric patients (1 to 17 years of age)Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use , ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES .) Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY .) Adult and Pediatric PatientsInhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.5 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. (See also, INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ). †Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients. If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with Ciprofloxacin Tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Ciprofloxacin Tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Launch Date

6.6216958E11
Curative
CIPRO

Approved Use

Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations. Adult Patients Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis. Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes. Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis. Infectious Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii † , Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei † when antibacterial therapy is indicated. Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. NOTE: The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated. Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Pediatric patients (1 to 17 years of age)Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use , ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES .) Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY .) Adult and Pediatric PatientsInhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.5 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. (See also, INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ). †Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients. If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with Ciprofloxacin Tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Ciprofloxacin Tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Launch Date

6.6216958E11
Curative
CIPRO

Approved Use

Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations. Adult Patients Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis. Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes. Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis. Infectious Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii † , Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei † when antibacterial therapy is indicated. Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. NOTE: The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated. Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Pediatric patients (1 to 17 years of age)Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli. NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use , ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES .) Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY .) Adult and Pediatric PatientsInhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.5 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. (See also, INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ). †Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients. If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with Ciprofloxacin Tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Ciprofloxacin Tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Launch Date

6.6216958E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
4.56 μg/mL
400 mg 2 times / day steady-state, intravenous
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
2.97 μg/mL
500 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
2.4 μg/mL
500 mg single, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.3 μg/mL
750 mg single, oral
dose: 750 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
5.4 μg/mL
1000 mg single, oral
dose: 1000 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
3.59 μg/mL
750 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 750 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.07 μg/mL
400 mg 3 times / day steady-state, intravenous
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
1.2 μg/mL
250 mg single, oral
dose: 250 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
12.7 μg × h/mL
400 mg 2 times / day steady-state, intravenous
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
13.7 μg × h/mL
500 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
11.6 μg × h/mL
500 mg single, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
20.2 μg × h/mL
750 mg single, oral
dose: 750 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
30.8 μg × h/mL
1000 mg single, oral
dose: 1000 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
31.6 μg × h/mL
750 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 750 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
32.9 μg × h/mL
400 mg 3 times / day steady-state, intravenous
dose: 400 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.8 μg × h/mL
250 mg single, oral
dose: 250 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
4 h
500 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4 h
500 mg single, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4 h
750 mg single, oral
dose: 750 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4 h
1000 mg single, oral
dose: 1000 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4 h
250 mg single, oral
dose: 250 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
30%
500 mg 2 times / day steady-state, oral
dose: 500 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: STEADY-STATE
co-administered:
CIPROFLOXACIN serum
Homo sapiens
population: UNKNOWN
age: UNKNOWN
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
15 mg/kg 2 times / day steady, oral (median)
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1 - 17 years
n = 335
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: 1 - 17 years
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 335
Sources:
Disc. AE: Reaction gastrointestinal...
Other AEs: Musculoskeletal disorder NOS...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Reaction gastrointestinal (3%)
Other AEs:
Musculoskeletal disorder NOS (9.3%)
Sources:
7.5 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 7.5 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 7.5 g
Sources:
unhealthy, 15 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: depression and posttraumatic stress disorder
Age Group: 15 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Disc. AE: Renal tubular necrosis acute...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Renal tubular necrosis acute (1 patient)
Sources:
12 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 12 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 12 g
Sources:
healthy, 16 years
n = 1
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 16 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Disc. AE: Pain epigastric...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Pain epigastric (1 patient)
Sources:
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 2-15 years
n = 90
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: childhood cholera
Age Group: 2-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 90
Sources:
Other AEs: Vomited...
Other AEs:
Vomited (58%)
Sources:
28 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 28 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 28 g
Sources:
healthy, 29 years
n = 1
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 29 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Disc. AE: Acute renal failure...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Acute renal failure (1 patient)
Sources:
750 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 750 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 750 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, > 70 years
n = 2
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: > 70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 2
Sources:
Disc. AE: Acute renal failure...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Acute renal failure (2 patients)
Sources:
3 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 3 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 3 g
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 2
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 2
Sources:
Disc. AE: Nausea and vomiting...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Nausea and vomiting (2 patients)
Sources:
228 mg 2 times / day steady, intravenous (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 50 years
n = 1869
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: mean 50 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 1869
Sources:
Other AEs: Infusion site reactions, Gastrointestinal disorder (NOS)...
Other AEs:
Infusion site reactions (4.4%)
Gastrointestinal disorder (NOS) (3%)
Central nervous system disorder NOS (1.8%)
Sources:
10 mg/kg 2 times / day steady, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, preterm neonates
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: neonatal sepsis
Age Group: preterm neonates
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Disc. AE: Death...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Death (grade 5, 3 patients)
Sources:
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, ≥18 years
n = 122
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute pyelonephritis
Age Group: ≥18 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 122
Sources:
Disc. AE: Exanthema...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Exanthema (2 patients)
Sources:
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, ≥18 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute pyelonephritis
Age Group: ≥18 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Disc. AE: Myalgia...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Myalgia (2 patients)
Sources:
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Other AEs: Acute kidney injury, Clostridium difficile infection...
Other AEs:
Acute kidney injury (serious, 8 patients)
Clostridium difficile infection (serious, 1 patient)
Chest pain (serious, 1 patient)
Dysuria (serious, 1 patient)
Epistaxis (serious, 1 patient)
GI bleed (serious, 1 patient)
Hematuria (serious, 1 patient)
Hyperkalemia (serious, 1 patient)
Hypertension malignant (serious, 1 patient)
Myocardial infarction (serious, 1 patient)
Nausea (serious, 1 patient)
Nephrolithiasis (serious, 1 patient)
Neutropenia (serious, 1 patient)
Pain (serious, 1 patient)
Nephrostomy complication (serious, 1 patient)
Radial nerve palsy (serious, 1 patient)
Sepsis (serious, 2 patients)
Small bowel obstruction (serious, 1 patient)
Thrombocytopenia (serious, 1 patient)
Urinary incontinence (serious, 1 patient)
Urinary retention (serious, 3 patients)
Vomiting (serious, 2 patients)
Venous thromboembolism (serious, 5 patients)
Wound complication (serious, 3 patients)
Constipation (below serious, 12 patients)
Headache (below serious, 7 patients)
Hypomagnesemia (below serious, 8 patients)
Insomnia (below serious, 8 patients)
Osteopenia (below serious, 19 patients)
Proteinuria (below serious, 12 patients)
Sources:
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 17
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Population Size: 17
Sources:
Other AEs: Diarrhea, Abdominal pain...
Other AEs:
Diarrhea (below serious, 2 patients)
Abdominal pain (below serious, 2 patients)
Headache (below serious, 2 patients)
Sources:
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: BK Virus Infection
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Other AEs: Rash...
Other AEs:
Rash (below serious, 1 patient)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Reaction gastrointestinal 3%
Disc. AE
15 mg/kg 2 times / day steady, oral (median)
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1 - 17 years
n = 335
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: 1 - 17 years
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 335
Sources:
Musculoskeletal disorder NOS 9.3%
15 mg/kg 2 times / day steady, oral (median)
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 1 - 17 years
n = 335
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: 1 - 17 years
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 335
Sources:
Renal tubular necrosis acute 1 patient
Disc. AE
7.5 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 7.5 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 7.5 g
Sources:
unhealthy, 15 years
n = 1
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: depression and posttraumatic stress disorder
Age Group: 15 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Pain epigastric 1 patient
Disc. AE
12 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 12 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 12 g
Sources:
healthy, 16 years
n = 1
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 16 years
Sex: M
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Vomited 58%
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 2-15 years
n = 90
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: childhood cholera
Age Group: 2-15 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 90
Sources:
Acute renal failure 1 patient
Disc. AE
28 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 28 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 28 g
Sources:
healthy, 29 years
n = 1
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 29 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 1
Sources:
Acute renal failure 2 patients
Disc. AE
750 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 750 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 750 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, > 70 years
n = 2
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: > 70 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 2
Sources:
Nausea and vomiting 2 patients
Disc. AE
3 g single, oral
Overdose
Dose: 3 g
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 3 g
Sources:
healthy, adult
n = 2
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 2
Sources:
Central nervous system disorder NOS 1.8%
228 mg 2 times / day steady, intravenous (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 50 years
n = 1869
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: mean 50 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 1869
Sources:
Gastrointestinal disorder (NOS) 3%
228 mg 2 times / day steady, intravenous (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 50 years
n = 1869
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: mean 50 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 1869
Sources:
Infusion site reactions 4.4%
228 mg 2 times / day steady, intravenous (mean)
Recommended
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 228 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, mean 50 years
n = 1869
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Infection
Age Group: mean 50 years
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 1869
Sources:
Death grade 5, 3 patients
Disc. AE
10 mg/kg 2 times / day steady, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Route: intravenous
Route: steady
Dose: 10 mg/kg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, preterm neonates
n = 24
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: neonatal sepsis
Age Group: preterm neonates
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 24
Sources:
Exanthema 2 patients
Disc. AE
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, ≥18 years
n = 122
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute pyelonephritis
Age Group: ≥18 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 122
Sources:
Myalgia 2 patients
Disc. AE
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, ≥18 years
n = 126
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute pyelonephritis
Age Group: ≥18 years
Sex: F
Population Size: 126
Sources:
Constipation below serious, 12 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Proteinuria below serious, 12 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Osteopenia below serious, 19 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Headache below serious, 7 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Hypomagnesemia below serious, 8 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Insomnia below serious, 8 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Chest pain serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Clostridium difficile infection serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Dysuria serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Epistaxis serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
GI bleed serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Hematuria serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Hyperkalemia serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Hypertension malignant serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Myocardial infarction serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Nausea serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Nephrolithiasis serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Nephrostomy complication serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Neutropenia serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Pain serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Radial nerve palsy serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Small bowel obstruction serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Thrombocytopenia serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Urinary incontinence serious, 1 patient
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Sepsis serious, 2 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Vomiting serious, 2 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Urinary retention serious, 3 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Wound complication serious, 3 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Venous thromboembolism serious, 5 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Acute kidney injury serious, 8 patients
500 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 133
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Renal Transplant Recipients
Population Size: 133
Sources:
Abdominal pain below serious, 2 patients
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 17
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Population Size: 17
Sources:
Diarrhea below serious, 2 patients
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 17
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Population Size: 17
Sources:
Headache below serious, 2 patients
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 17
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Crohn's Disease
Population Size: 17
Sources:
Rash below serious, 1 patient
500 mg 2 times / day steady, oral
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 500 mg, 2 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 9
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: BK Virus Infection
Population Size: 9
Sources:
Overview

Overview

Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
inconclusive [Activation 10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no [IC50 >10 uM]
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes [Activation 12.5893 uM]
yes [Activation 15.84893 uM]
yes [IC50 >10 uM]
yes
Drug as victimTox targets
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The role of fluoroquinolones in tuberculosis today.
2001
Activity and spectrum of BMS 284756, a new des-F (6) quinolone, tested against strains of ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-positive cocci.
2001 Feb
Effect of pre-stain viability on the acid-fast staining characteristics of Mycobacterium species.
2001 Feb
Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Bénin.
2001 Feb
Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to ciprofloxacin: first report in Cuba.
2001 Feb
Impact of gemifloxacin on the normal human intestinal microflora.
2001 Feb
[Effect of subinhibitory levels of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolines on hydrophobicity and motility of Serratia marcescens].
2001 Feb
Epithelial infectious crystalline keratopathy.
2001 Feb
Lack of interaction between levofloxacin and oxycodone: pharmacokinetics and drug disposition.
2001 Feb
Treatment of cat-scratch disease.
2001 Feb
Nosocomial pneumonia: importance of recognition of aetiological agents to define an appropriate initial empirical therapy.
2001 Feb
Activity of gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in combination with other antimicrobial agents.
2001 Feb
Changes in strategies for optimal antibacterial therapy in cystic fibrosis.
2001 Feb
Emergence of high level ciprofloxacin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2001 Feb
New approach for accurate simulation of human pharmacokinetics in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model: application to ciprofloxacin.
2001 Feb
In vitro activity of new quinolones against Clostridium difficile.
2001 Feb
Comparative activities of isepamicin, amikacin, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin alone or in combination with other antibiotics against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
2001 Jan
Antibiotic susceptibilities among recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from fifteen countries.
2001 Jan
Two short peptides including segments of subunit A of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase as potential probes to evaluate the antibacterial activity of quinolones.
2001 Jan
Comamonas acidovorans keratitis in a hydrogel contact lens wearer.
2001 Jan
Microbiological profile of a shipboard environment and the flora on contact lenses of seamen.
2001 Jan
Antimicrobial use and susceptibility rates in isolates from intensive care unit and other nosocomial inpatient and outpatient areas.
2001 Jan
Determination by fluorimetric titration of the ionization constants of ciprofloxacin in solution and in the presence of liposomes.
2001 Jan
Nosocomial pneumonia. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
2001 Jan
Insect wing case: unusual foreign body.
2001 Jan
Efficacy of ofloxacin and other otic preparations for otitis externa.
2001 Jan
Compliance issues related to the selection of antibiotic suspensions for children.
2001 Jan
Urethral stricture associated with malacoplakia: a case report and review of the literature.
2001 Jan
[Acute pyelonephritis. Randomized multicenter double-blind study comparing ciprofloxacin with combined ciprofloxacin and tobramycin].
2001 Jan 13
Pediatric travel consultation in an integrated clinic.
2001 Jan-Feb
Radical meatoplasty in the treatment of severe chronic external otitis.
2001 Jan-Feb
Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of ofloxacin 0.3% versus ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solutions in the treatment of patients with culture-positive bacterial keratitis.
2001 Mar
Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum outbreak associated with colonization of water taps in a neonatal intensive care unit.
2001 Mar
A case of rhinoscleroma treated with ciprofloxacin.
2001 Mar
Chryseobacterium in burn wounds.
2001 Mar
Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a burns unit--an infection control study.
2001 Mar
The activity of antibiotics against Legionella pneumophila: in vitro and in vivo studies.
2001 Mar
Characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli O78:K80 isolated from turkeys.
2001 Mar
Factors associated with antibiotic resistance in coliform organisms from community urinary tract infection in Wales.
2001 Mar
Antimicrobial activity of fluoroquinolone photodegradation products determined by parallel-line bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography.
2001 Mar
Transepithelial intestinal excretion of ciprofloxacin in humans.
2001 Mar 1
Ciprofloxacin resistance in gonococci.
2001 Mar 10
What have we learned from pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic theories?
2001 Mar 15
Successful treatment of an infant with Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis.
2001 Mar 15
Treatment failure with the use of ciprofloxacin for gonorrhea correlates with the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Bangladesh.
2001 Mar 15
In vitro susceptibilities to topical antibiotics of bacteria isolated from the surface of clinically symptomatic eyes.
2001 Mar-Apr
In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Germany.
2001 Mar-Apr
Association between antibiotic resistance and the expression of Dr adhesin among uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
2001 Mar-Apr
Activity of moxifloxacin and twelve other antimicrobial agents against 216 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2001 Mar-Apr
Mixed pharmacokinetic population study and diffusion model to describe ciprofloxacin lung concentrations.
2001 May
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Skin and Skin Structure 500 -750 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days Bone and Joint 500-750 mg every 12 hours 4 to 8 weeks Complicated Intra-Abdominal 500 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days Infectious Diarrhea 500 mg every 12 hours 5 to 7 days Typhoid Fever 500 mg every 12 hours 10 days Uncomplicated Gonorrhea 250 mg single dose single dose Inhalational anthrax (pos-exposure) 500 mg every 12 hours 60 days Plague 500–750 mg every 12 hours 14 days Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis 500 mg every 12 hours 28 days Lower Respiratory Tract 500 -750 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days Urinary Tract 250-500 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis 250 mg every 12 hours 3 days Acute Sinusitis 500 mg every 12 hours 10 days
Route of Administration: Oral
Eight hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant and two standard strains of S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228, ATCC 35984) were cultured overnight in Tryptone Soy Broth supplemented with 0.5% glucose. The solution of tested compounds in TSB-glucose medium were mixed (1:1) with the bacterial inoculums (10^7 CFU/mL) in sterile 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates (Karell - Medlab, Italy) and incubated at 37 C for 24 h. Ciprofloxacin was used as the reference antimicrobial compound; its final concentration ranged from 0.125 to 8 mkg/ml.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
Edited
by admin
on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
Record UNII
0MP32MFP6C
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
BAY O 9867
Code English
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
3-QUINOLINECARBOXYLIC ACID, 1-CYCLOPROPYL-6-FLUORO-1,4-DIHYDRO-4-OXO-7-(1-PIPERAZINYL)-, HYDROCHLORIDE (1:1)
Common Name English
BAY-O-9867
Code English
Code System Code Type Description
EPA CompTox
DTXSID1047788
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
93107-08-5
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
62999
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
CAS
86483-48-9
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
NON-SPECIFIC STOICHIOMETRY
FDA UNII
0MP32MFP6C
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB32542
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
SMS_ID
100000091536
Created by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023 , Edited by admin on Thu Jul 06 10:51:48 UTC 2023
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
SOLVATE->ANHYDROUS
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE
SOLVATE->ANHYDROUS
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY