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Details

Stereochemistry RACEMIC
Molecular Formula C15H21N3O
Molecular Weight 259.3473
Optical Activity ( + / - )
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 1
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of PRIMAQUINE

SMILES

CC(CCCN)Nc1cc(cc2cccnc21)OC

InChI

InChIKey=INDBQLZJXZLFIT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C15H21N3O/c1-11(5-3-7-16)18-14-10-13(19-2)9-12-6-4-8-17-15(12)14/h4,6,8-11,18H,3,5,7,16H2,1-2H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Primaquine is a oral medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Specifically it is used for malaria due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale along with other medications and for prevention if other options cannot be used. Primaquine is an alternative treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia together with clindamycin. Primaquine is lethal to P. vivax and P. ovale in the liver stage, and also to P. vivax in the blood stage through its ability to do oxidative damage to the cell. However, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. Primaquine is well-absorbed in the gut and extensively distributed in the body without accumulating in red blood cells. Administration of primaquine with food or grapefruit juice increases its oral bioavailibity. In blood, about 20% of circulating primaquine is protein-bound, with preferential binding to the acute phase protein orosomucoid. With a half-life on the order of 6 hours, it is quickly metabolized by liver enzymes to carboxyprimaquine, which does not have anti-malarial activity. Common side effects of primaquine administration include nausea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. Primaquine phosphate is recommended only for the radical cure of vivax malaria, the prevention of relapse in vivax malaria, or following the termination of chloroquine phosphate suppressive therapy in an area where vivax malaria is endemic. Patients suffering from an attack of vivax malaria or having parasitized red blood cells should receive a course of chloroquine phosphate, which quickly destroys the erythrocytic parasites and terminates the paroxysm. Primaquine phosphate should be administered concurrently in order to eradicate the exoerythrocytic parasites in a dosage of 1 tablet (equivalent to 15 mg base) daily for 14 days.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
7.5 µM [IC50]
68.0 µM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Curative
PRIMAQUINE

Approved Use

Primaquine phosphate is indicated for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of vivax malaria.

Launch Date

-5.661792E11
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
53 ng/mL
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
104 ng/mL
30 mg single, oral
dose: 30 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
66 ng/mL
15 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
65 ng/mL
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
0.5 μg × h/mL
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
1 μg × h/mL
30 mg single, oral
dose: 30 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
443 ng × h/mL
15 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
468 ng × h/mL
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
5.9 h
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
7.4 h
30 mg single, oral
dose: 30 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
4.3 h
15 mg 1 times / day multiple, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: MULTIPLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
4.4 h
15 mg single, oral
dose: 15 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
PRIMAQUINE plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: MALE
food status: FASTED
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Other AEs: Malaise, Headache...
Other AEs:
Malaise (1 patient)
Headache (2 patients)
Nausea (1 patient)
Pyrexia (1 patient)
Vomiting (1 patient)
Dizziness (1 patient)
Asthenia (1 patient)
Pruritus (1 patient)
Haemoglobin decreased (1 patient)
Dyspepsia (1 patient)
Sources:
0.6 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.6 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.6 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Co-administed with::
(artesunate)
50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute, symptomatic Plasmodium vivax malaria
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Disc. AE: Hematocrit decreased...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Hematocrit decreased (4 patients)
Sources:
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Other AEs: Malaise, Headache...
Other AEs:
Malaise (4 patients)
Headache (2 patients)
Nausea (1 patient)
Decreased appetite (3 patients)
Pyrexia (1 patient)
Vomiting (1 patient)
Dizziness (1 patient)
Asthenia (1 patient)
Arthralgia (1 patient)
Muscle spasms (1 patient)
Dyspnoea exertional (1 patient)
Diarrhoea (1 patient)
Sources:
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Other AEs: Malaise, Headache...
Other AEs:
Malaise (3 patients)
Headache (1 patient)
Nausea (2 patients)
Pyrexia (1 patient)
Vomiting (1 patient)
Myalgia (2 patients)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Asthenia 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Dizziness 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Dyspepsia 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Haemoglobin decreased 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Malaise 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Nausea 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Pruritus 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Pyrexia 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Vomiting 1 patient
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Headache 2 patients
30 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 30 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Hematocrit decreased 4 patients
Disc. AE
0.6 mg/kg 1 times / day multiple, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 0.6 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: multiple
Dose: 0.6 mg/kg, 1 times / day
Co-administed with::
(artesunate)
50 mg
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 18
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: acute, symptomatic Plasmodium vivax malaria
Age Group: adult
Sex: unknown
Population Size: 18
Sources:
Arthralgia 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Asthenia 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Diarrhoea 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Dizziness 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Dyspnoea exertional 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Muscle spasms 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Nausea 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Pyrexia 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Vomiting 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Headache 2 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Decreased appetite 3 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Malaise 4 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 118
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 118
Sources:
Headache 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Pyrexia 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Vomiting 1 patient
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Myalgia 2 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Nausea 2 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Malaise 3 patients
15 mg 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 15 mg, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, adult
n = 120
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Plasmodium vivax parasite
Age Group: adult
Sex: M
Population Size: 120
Sources:
Overview

OverviewOther

Drug as perpetrator​Drug as victim

Drug as victim

Tox targets
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
The haemolytic effect of various regimens of primaquine with chloroquine in American Negroes with G6PD deficiency and the lack of an effect of various antimalarial suppressive agents on erythrocyte metabolism.
1967
Methemoglobinemia provoked by malarial chemoprophylaxis in Vietnam.
1968 Nov 21
Simultaneous drug reactions in the same patient. Chloroquine-Primaquine sensitivity.
1970 Apr 27
Reaction to primaquine.
1980 Mar
The treatment of malaria in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients in Sabah.
1981 Dec
Primaquine-chloroquine prophylaxis against malaria in Southeast-Asian refugees entering South Australia.
1984 Mar 17
Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man. I. Studies of the absolute bioavailability and effects of dose size.
1985 Jun
[Hemolytic reaction due to administration of primaquine].
1986 Apr
Drug- and chemical-induced methaemoglobinaemia. Clinical features and management.
1986 Jul-Aug
Activity of clindamycin with primaquine against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo.
1988 Jun
Primaquine induced hemolysis in a Thai soldier.
1989 Dec
Immunogenicity of amodiaquine in the rat.
1990
Detection of antidrug IgG antibodies in patients with adverse drug reactions to amodiaquine.
1991
The effect of primaquine on the ultrastructural morphology of Pneumocystis carinii.
1991 Nov-Dec
Inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integrase.
1993 Mar 15
In vitro effects of artemisinin ether, cycloguanil hydrochloride (alone and in combination with sulfadiazine), quinine sulfate, mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, trifluoperazine hydrochloride, and verapamil on Toxoplasma gondii.
1994 Jun
[Primaquine and travelers from the Arab world. A report and recommendations].
1995
New drug developments for opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients: Pneumocystis carinii.
1995 Nov 24
Dapsone- and primaquine-induced methemoglobinemia in HIV-infected individuals.
1996 Aug 15
Efficacy of 101 antimicrobials and other agents on the development of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro.
1996 Dec
Drug-induced methaemoglobinaemia. Treatment issues.
1996 Jun
[Hemolysis and primaquine treatment. Preliminary report].
1997
Prediction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated enzyme induction of drugs and chemicals by mRNA quantification.
1998 Dec
Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland.
2005 May 1
Formulation and evaluation of taste masked oral reconstitutable suspension of primaquine phosphate.
2008
Imported malaria in a cosmopolitan European city: a mirror image of the world epidemiological situation.
2008 Apr 8
[In vitro dissolution profile of primaquine tablets available for malaria treatment in Brazil].
2008 Jan-Feb
Omeprazole transactivates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through the common regulatory region containing multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements.
2008 Jul 1
Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.
2008 Mar 5
Formulation and evaluation of primaquine phosphate taste-masked rapidly disintegrating tablet.
2008 Oct
Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia.
2008 Sep
Diverse chemicals including aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands modulate transcriptional activity of the 3'immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region.
2009 Jun 30
Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes.
2009 Nov 15
Interference with bile salt export pump function is a susceptibility factor for human liver injury in drug development.
2010 Dec
Feline babesiosis.
2010 Feb
The Summary Index of Malaria Surveillance (SIMS): a stable index of malaria within India.
2010 Feb 11
An open-label, randomised study of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artesunate-mefloquine for falciparum malaria in Asia.
2010 Jul 30
Monitoring for Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance to artemisinin and artesunate in Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam: 1998-2009.
2010 Jun 24
Blockade of hERG K(+) channel by antimalarial drug, primaquine.
2010 May
In Tanzania, hemolysis after a single dose of primaquine coadministered with an artemisinin is not restricted to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PD A-) individuals.
2010 May
Profiling of a prescription drug library for potential renal drug-drug interactions mediated by the organic cation transporter 2.
2011 Jul 14
Novel potent metallocenes against liver stage malaria.
2012 Mar
Understanding the mechanisms for metabolism-linked hemolytic toxicity of primaquine against glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient human erythrocytes: evaluation of eryptotic pathway.
2012 Mar 29
Characterization of Plasmodium liver stage inhibition by halofuginone.
2012 May
N-cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues as dual-stage antimalarial leads.
2013 Jan 24
Quinolin-4(1H)-imines are potent antiplasmodial drugs targeting the liver stage of malaria.
2013 Jun 13
Flavones as isosteres of 4(1H)-quinolones: discovery of ligand efficient and dual stage antimalarial lead compounds.
2013 Nov
N-cinnamoylation of antimalarial classics: quinacrine analogues with decreased toxicity and dual-stage activity.
2014 Feb
Elucidating mechanisms of toxicity using phenotypic data from primary human cell systems--a chemical biology approach for thrombosis-related side effects.
2015 Jan 5
Development of HepG2-derived cells expressing cytochrome P450s for assessing metabolism-associated drug-induced liver toxicity.
2016 Aug 5
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Primaquine phosphate should be administered concurrently in order to eradicate the exoerythrocytic parasites in a dosage of 1 tablet (equivalent to 15 mg base) daily for 14 days.
Route of Administration: Oral
Inhibition of liver-stage infection by Primaquine (PQ) was determined by measuring the luminescence intensity in Huh-7 cells infected with a firefly luciferase-expressing P. berghei line Huh-7 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, were cultured in 1640 RPMI medium supplemented with 10% v/v fetal bovine serum, 1% v/v nonessential amino acids, 1% v/v penicillin/streptomycin, 1% v/v glutamine, and 10 mM 4-(2- hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), pH 7, and maintained at 37 C with 5% CO2. For infection assays, Huh-7 cells (1.0 x 104 per well) were seeded in 96-well plates the day before drug treatment and infection. The medium was replaced by medium containing the appropriate concentration of each compound approximately 1 h prior to infection with sporozoites freshly obtained through disruption of salivary glands of infected female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Sporozoite addition was followed by centrifugation at 1700 g for 5 min. Parasite infection load was measured 48 h after infection by a bioluminescence assay (Biotium). The effect of the compounds on the viability of Huh-7 cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue assay (Invitrogen, U.K.)
Name Type Language
PRIMAQUINE
INN   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INN  
Official Name English
PRIMAQUINE [VANDF]
Common Name English
PRIMAQUINE [MI]
Common Name English
PRIMAQUINE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
SN-13272
Code English
(+/-)-PRIMAQUINE
Common Name English
KANAPRIM
Brand Name English
WR-2975
Code English
PRIMACHIN
Common Name English
NEO-QUIPENYL
Brand Name English
MALIRIDE
Brand Name English
NSC-27296
Code English
PRIMAQUINE [INN]
Common Name English
QUINOLINE, 8-((4-AMINO-1-METHYLBUTYL)AMINO)-6-METHOXY-
Systematic Name English
1,4-PENTANEDIAMINE, N4-(6-METHOXY-8-QUINOLINYL)-
Systematic Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
LIVERTOX 797
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC P01BA03
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000175482
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C271
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 6.5.3.1
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
EVMPD
SUB10043MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D011319
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
MVR3634GX1
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
4908
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
201-987-2
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL506
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
90-34-6
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
90-34-6
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
2266
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
Primaquine
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
57152-47-3
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
SUPERSEDED
NCI_THESAURUS
C62071
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
6516
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M9133
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
LACTMED
Primaquine
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
8687
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
DRUG BANK
DB01087
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
218
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 11:03:21 UTC 2021
PRIMARY