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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula N2O
Molecular Weight 44.0128
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of NITROUS OXIDE

SMILES

[N-]=[N+]=O

InChI

InChIKey=GQPLMRYTRLFLPF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/N2O/c1-2-3

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Nitrous oxide (N2O, laughing gas) was first discovered by the English scientist Joseph Priestly and has been used for more than 150 years. It has remained one of the most widely used anesthetics in both dental and medical applications. This small and simple inorganic chemical molecule has indisputable effects of analgesia, anxiolysis, and anesthesia that are of great clinical interest. As a general anesthetic, it is very weak and is generally not used as a single agent. It may be used as a carrier gas with oxygen in combination with more potent general inhalational gases for surgical anesthesia. In dentistry, it is commonly used as a single agent (with oxygen) for partial sedation, most commonly in pediatric dental populations. Findings to date indicate that the analgesic effect of N2O is opioid in nature, and, like morphine, may involve a myriad of neuromodulators in the spinal cord. The anxiolytic effect of N2O, on the other hand, resembles that of benzodiazepines and may be initiated at selected subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. Similarly, the anesthetic effect of N2O may involve actions at GABA(A) receptors and possibly at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as well.

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
ENTONOX

Approved Use

ENTONOX nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture provides the pain relieving properties of nitrous oxide with the benefits of additional oxygen without producing unconsciousness. It is a widely used analgesic for acute, short-term pain relief in a diverse range of clinical situations, from painful procedures to childbirth. Indications ENTONOX is a potent analgesic with a very rapid onset of action and is quickly eliminated from the body. It is widely used by midwives, hospitals and the ambulance service. It is used exclusively for short-term procedures inevitably involving pain, including (but not limited to): Acute trauma Tooth extraction and other brief procedures in dental work Wound and burn dressing, wound debribement and suturing Fracture and joint manipulation Colonoscopy Venopuncture Labour
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Effect of propranolol on arterial hypotension induced by halothane in the dog under nitrous oxide anaesthesia.
1967 Mar
Postoperative headache after nitrous oxide-oxygen-halothane anaesthesia.
1969 Nov
Factors in arrhythmia during dental outpatient general anesthesia.
1970 Sep-Oct
Effects of Innovar and innovar plus nitrous oxide on muscle tone and "H" reflex.
1971 Sep-Oct
Abdominal-muscle rigidity induced by morphine and nitrous oxide.
1973 Apr
Blood-gas changes during trichloroethylene and intravenous pethidine anaesthesia.
1973 Jan
Ketamine-pancuronium-narcotic technic for cardiovascular surgery in infants--a comparative study.
1975 Nov-Dec
Paroxysmal left bundle branch block during nitrous oxide anesthesia in a patient on lithium carbonate: a case report.
1977 Nov-Dec
Alteration of lidocaine-induced convulsions by meperidine and nitrous oxide.
1978 May-Jun
The effect of nitrous oxide-induced vitamin B12 deficiency on in vivo folate metabolism.
1981 Feb 27
Nitrous oxide reductase from denitrifying Pseudomonas perfectomarina. Purification and properties of a novel multicopper enzyme.
1985 Dec 16
General activity from weaning to maturity in mice exposed to halothane or nitrous oxide.
1986 Mar-Apr
Phenytoin syndrome developing after administration of dilantin for an enflurane-induced seizure.
1988 Jan
Neonatal capsaicin treatment of rats reduces ACTH secretion in response to peripheral neuronal stimuli but not to centrally acting stressors.
1988 Jul
Gradual or abrupt nitrous oxide administration in a canine model of critical coronary stenosis induces regional myocardial dysfunction that is worsened by halothane.
1988 Sep
[Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and balanced anesthesia with short-acting anesthetics for ENT surgery in children].
1999
[The effect of midazolam on the memory during cesarean section and the modulation by flumazenil].
1999 Jan
Inhaled anesthetics have hyperalgesic effects at 0.1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration.
2000 Aug
Detection of the cyclic nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro- 1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX) and their degradation products in soil environments.
2001 Feb 9
[Prevention of pain on injection with propofol in children: comparison of nitrous oxide with lidocaine].
2002 Apr
A combination of lidocaine and nitrous oxide in oxygen is more effective in preventing pain on propofol injection than either treatment alone.
2005 Apr
The anesthetics nitrous oxide and ketamine are more neurotoxic to old than to young rat brain.
2005 Jun
The optimal injection time of alfentanil for blunting circulatory responses to tracheal intubation.
2005 Mar
Inducers of oxidative stress block ciliary neurotrophic factor activation of Jak/STAT signaling in neurons.
2005 Mar
Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor epsilon1 subunit gene disruption of the action of general anesthetic drugs in mice.
2005 Mar
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Each cancer cell (CCRF-CEM, K562, A549 and MDA-MB-231) was cultured in a hyperbaric chamber at 1, 2 and 3 atmosphere of 74% nitrous oxide for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 0, 0.3, 0.7, 1, 2, 5 and 10 microM methotrexate (MTX), respectively. Only the growth of the MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly reduced after a longer exposure time to nitrous oxide, but those of the other cells were not. Nitrous oxide (N2O), at anesthetically-relevant concentrations, inhibits both ionic currents and excitotoxic neurodegeneration mediated through NMDA receptors and, like other NMDA antagonists, produces neurotoxic side effects which can be prevented by drugs that enhance GABAergic inhibition.
Name Type Language
NITROUS OXIDE
EP   FCC   FHFI   HSDB   INCI   MART.   MI   USP   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
INS-942
Code English
DINITROGEN MONOXIDE
Common Name English
NITROGENUM OXYGENATUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [GREEN BOOK]
Common Name English
N2O
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [FHFI]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [INCI]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [MI]
Common Name English
DINITROGENII OXIDUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
INS NO.942
Code English
FACTITIOUS AIR
Common Name English
LAUGHING GAS
Common Name English
HYPONITROUS ACID ANHYDRIDE
Systematic Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [FCC]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [VANDF]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [MART.]
Common Name English
FEMA NO. 2779
Code English
NITROGEN PROTOXIDE
Common Name English
PROTOXIDE OF NITROGEN
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [USP]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [EP]
Common Name English
E-942
Code English
NITROUS OXIDE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [HSDB]
Common Name English
NITROGEN OXIDE (N(SUB 2)O)
Common Name English
NITROUS OXIDE [JAN]
Common Name English
DINITROGEN OXIDE [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-VATC QN01AX63
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX63
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-942
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QN01AX13
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C245
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC N01AX13
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 1.1.1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
JECFA EVALUATION INS-492
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 184.1545
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
DRUG CENTRAL
4238
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB06690
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
504
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
233-032-0
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C73617
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
NITROUS OXIDE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Description: A colourless gas; odourless.Solubility: One volume dissolves in about 1.5 volumes of water at a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a temperature of 20 ?C.Category: Inhalational anaesthetic gas.Storage: Dinitrogen oxide should be kept as compressed gas or liquid at very low temperatures, in appropriate containers complying with the safety regulations of the national authority. Valves or taps should not be lubricated with oil or grease.Labelling: An ISO standard1 requires that cylinders containing Dinitrogen oxide intended for medical use should bear the name ofthe contents in legible and permanent characters and, preferably, also the molecular formula N2O.1 International Standard 32. Gas cylinders for medical use - marking for identification content. InternationalOrganization for Standardization, Switzerland, 1977.Additional information: In the analysis of medicinal gases certain tests are not intended for hospital pharmacists. They are applicable solely by laboratories equipped with specialized apparatus.
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1234579
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
K50XQU1029
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
7486
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
LACTMED
Nitrous Oxide
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
10024-97-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
948
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D009609
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
NITROUS OXIDE
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
JECFA MONOGRAPH
INS-492
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB03447MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M8010
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EPA CompTox
10024-97-2
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:18:58 UTC 2021
PRIMARY