U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula Al
Molecular Weight 26.9815
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ALUMINUM

SMILES

[Al]

InChI

InChIKey=AZDRQVAHHNSJOQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/Al.3H

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Aluminum is an element with an atomic number of 13. On the periodic table of elements its symbol is Al. It belongs to a group of metals including lead and tin. Aluminum has been used for a long time. During Ancient Egypt, aluminum oxides were used in their glazes and pottery. The Romans also used this metallic element. During the 1800s, advances in research made it possible to produce pure aluminum. Aluminium is used in a huge variety of products including cans, foils, kitchen utensils, window frames, beer kegs and aeroplane parts. This is because of its particular properties. It has low density, is non-toxic, has a high thermal conductivity, has excellent corrosion resistance and can be easily cast, machined and formed. It is also non-magnetic and non-sparking. It is the second most malleable metal and the sixth most ductile. It is often used as an alloy because aluminium itself is not particularly strong. Alloys with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon are lightweight but strong. They are very important in the construction of aeroplanes and other forms of transport. Aluminium is a good electrical conductor and is often used in electrical transmission lines. It is cheaper than copper and weight for weight is almost twice as good a conductor. When evaporated in a vacuum, aluminium forms a highly reflective coating for both light and heat. It does not deteriorate, like a silver coating would. These aluminium coatings have many uses, including telescope mirrors, decorative paper, packages and toys. Aluminium has no known biological role. Aluminium can accumulate in the body, and a link with Alzheimer’s disease has been suggested but not proven. Aluminum-containing raw materials are used safely and extensively in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter (OTC) drug products. In cosmetics, they function as pigments and thickening agents. Aluminum compounds also function as active ingredients in OTC drugs such as antacids and antiperspirants. Aluminum-containing ingredients have several uses in cosmetics and personal care products. Aluminum salts are used as antiperspirants to control sweat. Antiperspirant ingredients are regulated as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A manufacturer can only use the aluminum active ingredients that have been approved as safe and effective by the FDA as listed in the OTC antiperspirant monograph. These products can only be used according to the guidelines established in this monograph. Aluminum may also be present in cosmetic colors. Aluminum powder is FDA approved and may be safely used in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, [21 CFR §73.2645 Aluminum powder.]. In addition, aluminum is a common component in other cosmetic colors where it may be used as a substrate upon which another color is precipitated. Because the resulting color is not water-soluble, this can prevent ‘bleeding’, for example with lipstick. There are other uses of aluminum-containing ingredients in cosmetics, such as use as thickening agents. Under federal law, the safety of all ingredients must be substantiated by the manufacturer of the product before it is placed on the market. Aluminum compounds (alum) are the most widely used adjuvants in veterinary and human vaccines. Alum facilitates effectiveand long-lasting protective immunity in hosts, mainly by inducing antibody responses. Alum was found toinduce endogenous CD4+T cells and antibody production as well as to induce priming of CD8+T cells. These effects are shown to beindependent of the inflammasome. Novel findings of unexpected beneficial effects of decreased HBV (Hepatitis B virus) viral load and HBeAg seroconversion in chronically infected patients, as well as significant tumor suppression in experimental mice following multiple alum-only injections were examined, revealing alum's potential clinical applications beyond its use as a simple tool in antigen preparation.

Approval Year

PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Thrombocytopenia associated with intravenous desferrioxamine.
1985 Oct
Effects of long-term in vitro exposure to aluminum, cadmium or lead on differentiation and cholinergic receptor expression in a human neuroblastoma cell line.
1987 Dec
Grand mal fitting in a patient on regular haemodialysis treatment and receiving desferrioxamine therapy.
1988
Aluminum neurotoxicity: altered expression of cytoskeletal genes.
1988 Apr
Exacerbation of aluminium encephalopathy after treatment with desferrioxamine.
1989
Exacerbation of aluminium encephalopathy after treatment with desferrioxamine.
1989
Neuronal gene expression in aluminum myelopathy.
1989 Mar
Cerebrospinal fluid aluminum levels following deferoxamine.
1990 Aug
Aluminum inhibits hemoglobin synthesis but enhances iron uptake in Friend erythroleukemia cells.
1990 Feb
[The toxicity of aluminum on intake into the body with drinking water].
1990 Sep
[Environmental factors in western Pacific foci of ALS and a possible pathogenetic role of aluminum (Al) in motor neuron degeneration].
1991 Dec
Iron uptake by human reticulocytes at physiologic and sub-physiologic concentrations of iron transferrin: the effect of interaction with aluminum transferrin.
1991 Jun 1
Alzheimer disease amyloid beta protein forms calcium channels in bilayer membranes: blockade by tromethamine and aluminum.
1993 Jan 15
[D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin, a delta opioid agonist reduces endogenous aluminum content in the rat central nervous system.
1995 May
Inhibition of transcription factor IIIA-DNA interactions by xenobiotic metal ions.
1996 Mar 1
Aluminum alters iron and manganese uptake and regulation of surface transferrin receptors in primary rat oligodendrocyte cultures.
1996 May 6
Neuronal gene expression in aluminum-induced neurofibrillary pathology: an in situ hybridization study.
1997
Zinc allosterically modulates antagonist binding to cloned D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
1997 May
Serum Clara cell protein as an indicator of pulmonary impairment in occupational exposure at aluminum foundry.
2006
Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.
2006 Oct
Evidence for centrophenoxine as a protective drug in aluminium induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in rat brain.
2006 Oct
Aluminum-induced mitochondrial dysfunction leads to lipid accumulation in human hepatocytes: a link to obesity.
2007
Destabilization of non-pathological variants of ataxin-3 by metal ions results in aggregation/fibrillogenesis.
2007
Aluminum toxicity triggers the nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha and promotes anaerobiosis in hepatocytes.
2007 Feb
Involvement of oxidative stress in the impairment in biliary secretory function induced by intraperitoneal administration of aluminum to rats.
2007 Jun
Impact of aluminum on the oxidation of lipids and enzymatic lipolysis in monomolecular films at the air/water interface.
2007 Mar 13
An aluminum-based rat model for Alzheimer's disease exhibits oxidative damage, inhibition of PP2A activity, hyperphosphorylated tau, and granulovacuolar degeneration.
2007 Sep
Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort.
2009 Feb 15
Susceptibility of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase to aluminium induced oxidative damage.
2009 Jan 31
APP expression, distribution and accumulation are altered by aluminum in a rodent model for Alzheimer's disease.
2009 Nov
Evaluation of the protective role of melatonin on the behavioral effects of aluminum in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
2009 Nov 9
Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum.
2010 Aug 1
Bax gene silencing: a potential intervention in aluminum-induced neural cell death.
2010 Jan-Mar
Microsomal Ca2+ flux modulation as an indicator of heavy metal toxicity.
2010 Jul
Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).
2010 May 5
Absence of binding between the human transferrin receptor and the transferrin complex of biological toxic trace element, aluminum, because of an incomplete open/closed form of the complex.
2010 Sep
A novel approach for a toxicity prediction model of environmental pollutants by using a quantitative structure-activity relationship method based on toxicogenomics.
2011
Metal ions affecting the skin and eyes.
2011
Microarray analysis on human neuroblastoma cells exposed to aluminum, β(1-42)-amyloid or the β(1-42)-amyloid aluminum complex.
2011 Jan 27
The disruption of L-carnitine metabolism by aluminum toxicity and oxidative stress promotes dyslipidemia in human astrocytic and hepatic cells.
2011 Jun 24
Aluminum maltolate induces primary rat astrocyte apoptosis via overactivation of the class III PI3K/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy signal.
2012 Mar
Transgenic nematodes as biosensors for metal stress in soil pore water samples.
2012 Mar
Molecular dynamics simulations of iron- and aluminum-loaded serum transferrin: protonation of Tyr188 is necessary to prompt metal release.
2012 Sep 4
p38/AP-1 pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses is negatively modulated by electrical stimulation.
2013
How aluminum adjuvants could promote and enhance non-target IgE synthesis in a genetically-vulnerable sub-population.
2013 Apr-Jun
The metal transporter SMF-3/DMT-1 mediates aluminum-induced dopamine neuron degeneration.
2013 Jan
Assessment of infantile mineral imbalances in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
2013 Nov 11
Protective effects of copper against aluminum toxicity on acetylcholinesterase and catecholamine contents of different regions of rat's brain.
2013 Sep
Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.
2014 Mar
Aluminum trichloride inhibits osteoblast mineralization via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.
2016 Jan 25
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In the phase II B clinical trial, 74 hepatitis B virus patients with a viral load 4100 000 copies/mL and a serum ALT (alanine transaminase) oftwo to ten times the upper limit of normal were injected with 1 mL 0.1% Aluminum emulsion intramuscularly once every four weeks, for a total of six injections.
Route of Administration: Intramuscular
Name Type Language
ALUMINUM
HSDB   INCI   MI  
INCI  
Official Name English
METALLIC ALUMINUM
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM
WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
CI 77000 [INCI]
Common Name English
ALUMINUM [MI]
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM METALLICUM
HPUS  
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM (E 173)
Common Name English
INS NO.173
Code English
ALUMINIUM [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
ALUMINUM [INCI]
Common Name English
DIAMOND PIECE H TYPE, SILVER
Brand Name English
CI 77000
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
ALUMINIUM METAL
Common Name English
ALUMINUM POWDER
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
ALUMINUM [HSDB]
Common Name English
C.I. 77000
Common Name English
ALUMINIUM METALLICUM [HPUS]
Common Name English
E-173
Code English
ALUMINUM POWDER [INCI]
Common Name English
INS-173
Code English
COSMETIC ALUMINUM POWDER VP-1
Brand Name English
ALUMINUM METAL
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
CFR 21 CFR 178.3297
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC D10AX01
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 176.170
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
DSLD 264 (Number of products:9)
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 111
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C637
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
7429-90-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
7429-90-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D000535
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01370
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
1311504
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
MERCK INDEX
M1589
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
PUBCHEM
5359268
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
507
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C68232
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
CPD4NFA903
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
JECFA EVALUATION
INS-173
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-072-3
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB12808MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB130454
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 00:22:55 UTC 2021
PRIMARY