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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C5H9NO3
Molecular Weight 131.1301
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMINOLEVULINIC ACID

SMILES

C(CC(=O)O)C(=O)CN

InChI

InChIKey=ZGXJTSGNIOSYLO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C5H9NO3/c6-3-4(7)1-2-5(8)9/h1-3,6H2,(H,8,9)

HIDE SMILES / InChI
Aminolevulinic Acid is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway. The metabolism of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first step in the biochemical pathway resulting in heme synthesis. Aminolevulinic acid is not a photosensitizer, but rather a metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is a photosensitizer. The synthesis of ALA is normally tightly controlled by feedback inhibition of the enzyme, ALA synthetase, presumably by intracellular heme levels. ALA, when provided to the cell, bypasses this control point and results in the accumulation of PpIX, which is converted into heme by ferrochelatase through the addition of iron to the PpIX nucleus. Marketed under the brand name LEVULAN KERASTICK for Topical Solution plus blue light illumination using the BLU-U Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy Illuminator, it is indicated for the treatment of minimally to moderately thick actinic keratoses (Grade 1 or 2, see table 2 for definition) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is also being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. An orally-administered in vivo diagnostic agent, Aminolevulinic acid, is used in photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) whose aim is to help doctors visualize the tumor tissue during surgical resection of malignant glioma, it is already sold in over 20 European countries including Germany and the U.K. According to the presumed mechanism of action, photosensitization following application of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) topical solution occurs through the metabolic conversion of ALA to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which accumulates in the skin to which aminolevulinic acid has been applied. When exposed to light of appropriate wavelength and energy, the accumulated PpIX produces a photodynamic reaction, a cytotoxic process dependent upon the simultaneous presence of light and oxygen. The absorption of light results in an excited state of the porphyrin molecule, and subsequent spin transfer from PpIX to molecular oxygen generates singlet oxygen, which can further react to form superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Photosensitization of actinic (solar) keratosis lesions using aminolevulinic acid, plus illumination with the BLU-UTM Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy Illuminator (BLU-U), is the basis for aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (PDT).

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: There is low permeability of the undisrupted BBB in humans

Originator

Curator's Comment:: The first report on excessive protoporphyrin accumulation and high photosensitivity after exogenous administration of ALA in humans was presented by Berlin et al. in 1956

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
LEVULAN KERASTICK

Approved Use

The LEVULAN KERASTICK for Topical Solution plus blue light illumination using the BLU-U Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy Illuminator is indicated for the treatment of minimally to moderately thick actinic keratoses (Grade 1 or 2, see table 2 for definition) of the face or scalp.

Launch Date

9.4452482E11
Diagnostic
Gliolan

Approved Use

Gliolan is indicated in adult patients for visualisation of malignant tissue during surgery for malignant glioma (WHO grade III and IV).

Launch Date

1.16760956E12
Primary
ALA

Approved Use

Condylomata Acuminata

Launch Date

1.17141117E12
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
8239.1 μg/L
20 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 20 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
1862.6 μg/L
2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
274.7 μg/L
0.2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 0.2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
15.44 μg/mL
100 mg single, intravenous
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
4.65 μg/mL
100 mg single, oral
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
27143.5 μg × h/L
20 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 20 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
2901.3 μg × h/L
2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
424.2 μg × h/L
0.2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 0.2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
13.7 μg × h/mL
100 mg single, intravenous
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
7.4 μg × h/mL
100 mg single, oral
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
1.94 h
20 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 20 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
0.84 h
2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
0.75 h
0.2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 0.2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
50.1 min
100 mg single, intravenous
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Intravenous
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
44.4 min
100 mg single, oral
dose: 100 mg
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Funbound

Funbound

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
88%
20 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 20 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
88%
2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
88%
0.2 mg/kg bw single, oral
dose: 0.2 mg/kg bw
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: UNKNOWN
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
n = 61
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Age Group: 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 61
Sources:
Other AEs: Alanine aminotransferase increase, Hypotension...
Other AEs:
Alanine aminotransferase increase (grade 3, 6.6%)
Hypotension (grade 3, 1.6%)
Urticaria (grade 3, 1.6%)
Sources:
10 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 44
unhealthy
n = 384
Health Status: unhealthy
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 384
Sources: Page: p. 44
Disc. AE: Application site burning, Application site pain...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Application site burning (1 patient)
Application site pain (1 patient)
Sources: Page: p. 44
100 mg single, intravenous
Dose: 100 mg
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 100 mg
Sources:
healthy
n = 6
Health Status: healthy
Population Size: 6
Sources:
100 mg single, oral
Dose: 100 mg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 100 mg
Sources:
healthy
n = 6
Health Status: healthy
Population Size: 6
Sources:
1328 mg single, intravesical
Dose: 1328 mg
Route: intravesical
Route: single
Dose: 1328 mg
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 8
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: recurrent bladder cancer
Population Size: 8
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Hypotension grade 3, 1.6%
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
n = 61
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Age Group: 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 61
Sources:
Urticaria grade 3, 1.6%
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
n = 61
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Age Group: 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 61
Sources:
Alanine aminotransferase increase grade 3, 6.6%
20 mg/kg single, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 20 mg/kg
Sources:
unhealthy, 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
n = 61
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Age Group: 70.5 years (range: 53–84 years)
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 61
Sources:
Application site burning 1 patient
Disc. AE
10 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 44
unhealthy
n = 384
Health Status: unhealthy
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 384
Sources: Page: p. 44
Application site pain 1 patient
Disc. AE
10 % 1 times / day multiple, topical
Recommended
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Route: topical
Route: multiple
Dose: 10 %, 1 times / day
Sources: Page: p. 44
unhealthy
n = 384
Health Status: unhealthy
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 384
Sources: Page: p. 44
Sourcing

Sourcing

Vendor/AggregatorIDURL
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Acute intermittent porphyria: clinical and selected research aspects.
1975 Dec
An affordable, portable fluorescence imaging device for skin lesion detection using a dual wavelength approach for image contrast enhancement and aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX. Part II. In vivo testing.
2001
An affordable, portable fluorescence imaging device for skin lesion detection using a dual wavelength approach for image contrast enhancement and aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX. Part I. Design, spectral and spatial characteristics.
2001
Modulator of heme biosynthesis induces apoptosis in leukemia cells.
2001 Apr
The porphyrias: genetic and acquired aspects.
2001 Apr
Photodynamic therapy vs. cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III clinical trial.
2001 Apr
[Photodynamic therapy of dysplasias and early carcinomas in Barrett esophagus with a diode laser system--a pilot study].
2001 Apr 15
Spectrophotometric microassay for delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in dried-blood spots as confirmation for hereditary tyrosinemia type I.
2001 Aug
Correlation between lead exposure indicators and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies in lymphocytes from inorganic lead exposed workers.
2001 Aug
Peripheral neuropathy in chronic occupational inorganic lead exposure: a clinical and electrophysiological study.
2001 Aug
Recognition and transport characteristics of nonpeptidic compounds by basolateral peptide transporter in Caco-2 cells.
2001 Aug
Anticarcinogenic actions of melatonin which involve antioxidative processes: comparison with other antioxidants.
2001 Aug
Antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy can be enhanced by the use of a low dose of photofrin in human tumor xenografts.
2001 Aug 1
Evaluation of protoporphyrin IX production, phototoxicity and cell death pathway induced by hexylester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in Reh and HPB-ALL cells.
2001 Aug 10
Fluorescence spectroscopy of normal mouse skin exposed to 5-aminolaevulinic acid and red light.
2001 Aug 15
Photodynamic therapy with topical delta-aminolaevulinic acid for the treatment of plantar warts.
2001 Aug 15
In vivo pharmacokinetics of protoporphyrin IX accumulation following intracutaneous injection of 5-aminolevulinic acid.
2001 Aug 15
5-Aminolevulinic acid inhibits [3H]muscimol binding to human and rat brain synaptic membranes.
2001 Feb
Melatonin prevents delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative DNA damage in the presence of Fe2+.
2001 Feb
Survival of two patients with severe delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria.
2001 Feb
Systemic vs local administration of delta-aminolevulinic acid for laparoscopic fluorescence diagnosis of malignant intra-abdominal tumors. Experimental study.
2001 Feb
5-Aminolaevulinic acid methyl ester transport on amino acid carriers in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
2001 Feb
Imaging of the lower urinary tract in adults.
2001 Feb
Photodynamic therapy of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III using topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid.
2001 Jan
Haem regulation of the mitochondrial import of the Kluyveromyces lactis 5-aminolaevulinate synthase: an organelle approach.
2001 Jan 15
Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid induces apoptosis and caspase activation in malignant T cells.
2001 Jan-Feb
The photosensitizing effect of the photoproduct of protoporphyrin IX.
2001 Jul
5-Aminolaevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in multidrug resistant leukemia cells.
2001 Jul
Some articles should just not be published.
2001 Jul
Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with topical aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride and fluorescent blue light.
2001 Jul
Photosensitization and mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by the use of ALA derivatives in photodynamic therapy.
2001 Jul 20
Mechanistic basis for suicide inactivation of porphobilinogen synthase by 4,7-dioxosebacic acid, an inhibitor that shows dramatic species selectivity.
2001 Jul 27
Photobiological activity of exogenous and endogenous porphyrin derivatives in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae cells.
2001 Jun
Effect of photodynamic therapy on urinary bladder function: an experimental study with rats.
2001 Jun
Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for tumour-stage mycosis fungoides.
2001 Jun
Systemic photodynamic therapy with aminolaevulinic acid delays the appearance of ultraviolet-induced skin tumours in mice.
2001 Jun
Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the diagnosis and treatment of superficial bladder cancer: improvement in diagnostic sensitivity.
2001 Jun
Circular permutation of 5-aminolevulinate synthase. Mapping the polypeptide chain to its function.
2001 Jun 1
[Are new treatments always effective ?].
2001 Jun-Jul
Iontophoretic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA): effect of pH.
2001 Mar
Is delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase rate limiting in heme biosynthesis following exposure of cells to delta-aminolevulinic acid?
2001 Mar
Review article: the potential role for photodynamic therapy in the management of upper gastrointestinal disease.
2001 Mar
Abortive assembly of succinate-ubiquinone reductase (complex II) in a ferrochelatase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli.
2001 May
[Fluorescence cytology of the urinary bladder].
2001 May
Photomodification of the electrical properties of the plasma membrane: a comparison between 6 different membrane-active photosensitizers.
2001 May 1
Patents

Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Can also be used orally for visualisation of malignant tissue during surgery for malignant glioma (WHO grade III and IV): the recommended dose is 20 mg 5-ALA HCl per kilogram body weight. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000744/WC500021790.pdf
LEVULAN KERASTICK for Topical Solution 20% (aminolevulinic acid HCl) is intended for direct application to individual lesions diagnosed as actinic keratoses and not to perilesional skin. This product is not intended for application by patients or unqualified medical personnel. Application should involve either scalp or face lesions, but not both simultaneously. The recommended treatment frequency is: one application of the LEVULAN KERASTICK Topical Solution and one dose of illumination per treatment site per 8­ week treatment session. Each individual LEVULAN KERASTICK should be used for only one patient. Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses with LEVULAN KERASTICK for Topical Solution is a two stage process involving a) application of the product to the target lesions with LEVULAN KERASTICK Topical Solution, followed 14 to 18 hours later by b) illumination with blue light using the BLU-U Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy Illuminator. The second visit, for illumination, must take place in the 14-18 hour window following application.
Route of Administration: Topical
In Vitro Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: Glioma cells, seeded at the bottom of 96-well plates and incubated with ALA (10 ug/ml) for 6 h, were exposed to the sinusoidal US pulses with a resonance frequency of 1 MHz, 1000 µs duration, 0.4 duty-cycle, and average acoustic power varying from 2 W to 6 W. Ultrasound waves were generated by a flat circular piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 25 mm. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay.
Aminolevulinic acid (10 ug/ml) mediated sonosensitization of rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro. ALA-mediated SDT evokes cytotoxic effects of low intensity US on rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro.
Name Type Language
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
VANDF   WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
5-ALA
Common Name English
DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
Systematic Name English
PENTANOIC ACID, 5-AMINO-4-OXO-
Common Name English
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID [VANDF]
Common Name English
5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
MART.  
Common Name English
AMINOLEVULINATE
Systematic Name English
5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID [MART.]
Common Name English
5-AMINO-4-OXOPENTANOIC ACID
Systematic Name English
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
.DELTA.-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID [MI]
Common Name English
LEVULINIC ACID, 5-AMINO-
Systematic Name English
.DELTA.-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
MI  
Systematic Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000175846
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 387312
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 710519
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC L01XD04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000171207
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
CFR 21 CFR 862.1060
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C1420
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
WHO-VATC QL01XD04
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000171207
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000171207
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
FDA ORPHAN DRUG 811521
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
NDF-RT N0000171207
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
EU-Orphan Drug EU/3/16/1811
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
FDA UNII
88755TAZ87
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
PUBCHEM
137
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
D000622
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
IUPHAR
4784
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
106-60-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C234
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M1713
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
EVMPD
SUB12853MIG
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
106-60-5
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB00855
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
166
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
683
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
155002
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
ALTERNATIVE
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
203-414-1
Created by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Fri Jun 25 21:30:38 UTC 2021
PRIMARY