U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C6H12O6
Molecular Weight 180.1561
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 4 / 4
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of ANHYDROUS DEXTROSE

SMILES

C(=O)[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O)O)O)O

InChI

InChIKey=GZCGUPFRVQAUEE-SLPGGIOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8/h1,3-6,8-12H,2H2/t3-,4+,5+,6+/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description
Curator's Comment:: description was created based on several sources, including: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose

Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. The D-isomer (D-glucose), also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer (L-glucose) does not. Glucose is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is a very important source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen, for times when the organism will need it. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen etc. It is however, manufactured by hydrolysis of cornstarch by steaming and diluting acid. Glucose is the human body's key source of energy, through aerobic respiration, providing about 3.75 kilocalories (16 kilojoules) of food energy per gram. Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g. starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Use of glucose as an energy source in cells is by either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. All of these processes follow from an earlier metabolic pathway known as glycolysis. The insulin reaction, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose supplies almost all the energy for the brain, so its availability influences psychological processes. When glucose is low, psychological processes requiring mental effort (e.g., self-control, effortful decision-making) are impaired. Ingested glucose is absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine and results in a rapid increase in the blood glucose level. Glucose is used to manage hypoglycemia and for intravenous feeding. Nausea may occur after ingesting glucose, but this also may be an effect of the hypoglycemia which is present just prior to ingestion. Other adverse effects include increased blood glucose, injection site leakage of fluid (extravasation), injection site inflammation, and bleeding in the brain.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment:: Glucose from blood enters the brain by a transport protein. Glucose is the primary energy substrate of the brain. Glucose transport protein (GLUT-1) is highly enriched in brain capillary endothelial cells. These transporters carry glucose molecules through the blood brain barrier. Although rare, patients with Glut-1 deficiency (caused by genetic mutations) can have severe learning difficulties. Low glucose sugar levels in the cerebrospinal, but not in the blood, will identify the condition.

Originator

Curator's Comment:: In the year 1747, a pharmacist from Germany named Andreas Marggraf was able to isolate the glucose found in raisins. However, Marggraf called it as ‘eine Art Zucke’. In 1811, sugar syrup was produced by Constantine Kirchoff with the use of isolated glucose. It was only in 1838 when the term ‘glucose’ was introduced and this was done by Jean Baptiste Andre Dumas. The word was derived from a Greek word glycos that means sweet.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Preventing
ALCOHOL AND DEXTROSE

Approved Use

Alcohol and Dextrose Injections USP are indicated for increasing caloric intake.
Primary
Unknown

Approved Use

Unknown
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
400 mg/kg single, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 400 mg/kg
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 400 mg/kg
Sources:
healthy, <1 h old
n = 73
Health Status: healthy
Condition: Neonatal Hypoglycaemia Prophylaxis
Age Group: <1 h old
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 73
Sources:
25 g single, intravenous
Highest studied dose
Dose: 25 g
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 25 g
Sources:
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Hypoglycaemia
Sources:
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources:
unhealthy
n = 25
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Adult hypoglycaemia
Sex: M+F
Population Size: 25
Sources:
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Other AEs: Fluid overload, Electrolytes serum low (NOS)...
Other AEs:
Fluid overload
Electrolytes serum low (NOS)
Overhydration
Pulmonary edema
Peripheral edema
Hypokalemia (grade 3)
Serum osmolality increased
Intracerebral hemorrhage
Sources: Page: p.2
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Electrolytes serum low (NOS)
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Fluid overload
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Intracerebral hemorrhage
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Overhydration
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Peripheral edema
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Pulmonary edema
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Serum osmolality increased
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Hypokalemia grade 3
10 % single, intravenous
Recommended
Dose: 10 %
Route: intravenous
Route: single
Dose: 10 %
Sources: Page: p.2
unhealthy
Health Status: unhealthy
Condition: Source of water and calories
Sources: Page: p.2
Overview

Overview

CYP3A4CYP2C9CYP2D6hERG

OverviewOther

Other InhibitorOther SubstrateOther Inducer


Drug as perpetrator​

Drug as perpetrator​

TargetModalityActivityMetaboliteClinical evidence
likely
yes
Sourcing

Sourcing

Vendor/AggregatorIDURL
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Effect of high glucose concentrations on human erythrocytes in vitro.
2015 Aug
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Curator's Comment:: The usual dose of glucose for hypoglycemia is 10-20 gm orally or by intravenous infusion.
Intravenous solution/Injection: 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 70 %
Route of Administration: Intravenous
In Vitro Use Guide
Erythrocytes were incubated with 5, 45 or 100 mM glucose for up to 72 h. High glucose concentrations intensified lipid peroxidation and loss of activities of erythrocyte enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase).
Name Type Language
ANHYDROUS DEXTROSE
II  
Common Name English
GLUCOSE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
GLUCOSE, ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
NSC-406891
Code English
(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(HYDROXYMETHYL)TETRAHYDRO-2H-PYRAN-2,3,4,5-TETRAOL
Systematic Name English
DEXTROSE (CONSTITUENT OF CRANBERRY LIQUID PREPARATION) [DSC]
Common Name English
DEXTROSE ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
GLUCOSE
Common Name English
GLUCOSE [INCI]
Common Name English
GLUCOSE [MI]
Common Name English
D-GLUCOSE
Systematic Name English
ANHYDROUS DEXTROSE [II]
Common Name English
GLUCOSE [HSDB]
Common Name English
D-GLUCOSE, ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
GLUCOSE [EP MONOGRAPH]
Common Name English
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-PENTAHYDROXYHEXANAL
Systematic Name English
ANHYDROUS GLUCOSE
Common Name English
DEXTROSE, ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
GLUCOSE ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
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NCI_THESAURUS C68479
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 780220
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FDA ORPHAN DRUG 599517
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Code System Code Type Description
MERCK INDEX
M5765
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PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
349730
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PRIMARY RxNorm
CAS
50-99-7
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PRIMARY
FDA UNII
5SL0G7R0OK
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PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
50-99-7
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB74890
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PRIMARY
HSDB
489
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PRIMARY
CAS
2280-44-6
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SUPERSEDED
PUBCHEM
107526
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PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C61716
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PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB11988MIG
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PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
845
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PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
218-914-5
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ALTERNATIVE
DRUG BANK
DB01914
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PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
200-075-1
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PRIMARY