U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS


Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C6H15N2O2
Molecular Weight 147.1955
Optical Activity NONE
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 1






Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body resulting in reduction in intraocular pressure.

CNS Activity

Curator's Comment: Carbachol does not pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) however it produces cholinergic effects on brain blood vessels from the luminal side, whereas the effects on dural and extracranial vessels are from both the luminal and abluminal side since they are devoid of BBB


Curator's Comment: reference retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550933/

Approval Year



ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct

Approved Use

Intraocular use for obtaining miosis during surgery. In addition, MIOSTAT (carbachol intraocular solution, USP) reduces the intensity of intraocular pressure elevation in the first 24 hours after cataract surgery.

Launch Date





Avoidance learning: long-lasting deficits after temporal lobe seizure.
1969 Dec 12
Sustained atrial fibrillation induced by carbachol, methacholine and bethanechol.
1971 Apr
Spasmolytic constituents of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud: pharmacological evaluation of himachalol.
1975 Feb
Motor disturbances produced by intrastriatal injection of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP.
1976 Nov
Midbrain interaction with the hypothalamus in expression of aggressive behavior in cats.
Muscarine- and carbachol-induced aggressions: fear and irritable kinds of aggressions.
1977 Dec 28
Seizures induced by carbachol, morphine, and leucine-enkephalin: a comparison.
1983 Apr
Neuropharmacology of the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni.
1983 Jan
Drug-induced modulation of locomotor hyperactivity induced by picrotoxin in nucleus accumbens.
1984 Oct
Neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide: effects on glucagon and insulin secretion in the mouse.
Spinal cholinergic neurons and the expression of morphine withdrawal symptoms in the rat.
1987 Mar
Novel 'soft' anticholinergic agents.
1988 Feb
The effect of cholinergic stimulation in the nucleus accumbens on locomotor behavior.
1988 Feb 16
Anatomical analysis of frontal cortex sites at which carbachol induces motor seizures in the rat.
1988 May
Renal function during onset of carbachol-induced hypertension in conscious rats.
Studies on the development of tolerance and potential spinal neurotoxicity after chronic intrathecal carbachol-antinociception in the rat.
1991 Feb
Susceptibility to seizures produced by chemical convulsants and maximal electric shock in rats after electrolytic lesions into the red nucleus.
1992 Jan
Excitatory modulation by a spinal cholinergic system of a descending sympathoexcitatory pathway in rats.
1992 Mar
Sites at which neuropeptide Y modulates parasympathetic control of heart rate in guinea pigs and rats.
1992 May 1
Characterization of human alpha 4 beta 2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stably and heterologously expressed in native nicotinic receptor-null SH-EP1 human epithelial cells.
2003 Dec
Design, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of a new class of soft anticholinergics.
2003 Oct
Role of phospholipase D signaling in ethanol-induced inhibition of carbachol-stimulated DNA synthesis of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.
2004 Aug
Cyclic AMP/protein kinase a signal attenuates Ca(2+)-induced fibroblast growth factor-1 synthesis in rat cortical neurons.
2004 Aug 15
Coaxing a pyridine nucleus to give up its aromaticity: synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel conformationally restricted analogues of nicotine and anabasine.
2004 Dec 30
Post-seizures amygdaloallocortical microvascular lesion leading to atrophy and memory impairment.
2005 Aug
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations of the zwitterionic metabolite of a new series of N-substituted soft anticholinergics.
2005 Dec
[Effects of carbachol on apoptosis of peripheral white blood cells and expression of cytokines in rats suffering from gut ischemia/reperfusion injury].
2005 Feb
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in rat urinary bladder detrusor: participation in M3 and M4 muscarinic receptor function.
2005 Jul
Effects of ML-7 and Y-27632 on carbachol- and endothelin-1-induced contraction of bovine trabecular meshwork.
2005 Jun
Actin and non-muscle myosin II facilitate apical exocytosis of tear proteins in rabbit lacrimal acinar epithelial cells.
2005 Oct 15
Theoretical and experimental investigation of calcium-contraction coupling in airway smooth muscle.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mediate oligodendrocyte progenitor survival through Src-like tyrosine kinases and PI3K/Akt pathways.
2006 Apr
Roles of protein kinase C, Ca2+, Pyk2, and c-Src in agonist activation of rat lacrimal gland p42/p44 MAPK.
2006 Aug
Novelty exploration elicits a reversal of acute stress-induced modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the rat.
2006 Dec 1
Muscarinic cholinoceptor activation modulates DNA synthesis and CD40 expression in fibroblast cells.
2006 Jul
[Effects of carbachol on apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells after gut ischemia/reperfusion in rat].
2007 Aug
Testosterone and progesterone rapidly attenuate plasma membrane Gbetagamma-mediated signaling in Xenopus laevis oocytes by signaling through classical steroid receptors.
2007 Jan
Endogenous RGS proteins modulate SA and AV nodal functions in isolated heart: implications for sick sinus syndrome and AV block.
2007 May
Enhanced proliferation of SNU-407 human colon cancer cells by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
2008 Nov 30
Monitoring the reaction of carbachol with acetylcholinesterase by thioflavin T fluorescence and acetylthiocholine hydrolysis.
2008 Sep 25
Muscarinic receptors prevent oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by domoic acid in mouse cerebellar granule cells.
2009 Apr
Histamine H1 receptor induces cytosolic calcium increase and aquaporin translocation in human salivary gland cells.
2009 Aug
Cholinergic responses of ophthalmic arteries in M3 and M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice.
2009 Oct
Prediction of functionally selective allosteric interactions at an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutant using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
2010 Aug
Structural and functional effects of developmental exposure to ethanol on the zebrafish heart.
2010 Jun
The validation of an in vitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions.
2010 Jun 15
Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura.
2010 Mar
Zinc oxide nanoparticle disruption of store-operated calcium entry in a muscarinic receptor signaling pathway.
2010 Oct
Molecular basis of inhibition of substrate hydrolysis by a ligand bound to the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase.
2010 Sep 6
Antispasmodic effects of eugenol on rat airway smooth muscle.
2011 Dec


Sample Use Guides

MIOSTAT (CARBACHOL INTRAOCULAR SOLUTION, USP) 0.01% Aseptically remove the sterile vial from the blister package by peeling the backing paper and dropping the vial onto a sterile tray. Withdraw the contents into a dry sterile syringe, and replace the needle with an atraumatic cannula prior to intraocular instillation. No more than one-half milliliter should be gently instilled into the anterior chamber for the production of satisfactory miosis. It may be instilled before or after securing sutures. Miosis is usually maximal within two to five minutes after application.
Route of Administration: Other
In the dose-course studies, carbachol showed significant increase in phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 (p-MYPT1) from concentrations of 15-100 μM based on Western blot results (p < 0.05, ANOVA test). In the time-course studies, treatment of cells with 15 μM of carbachol significantly enhanced the expression of p-MYPT1 from 3 to 15 h (p < 0.05, ANOVA test) and induced the expression of Rho A from 10 to 120 min (p < 0.05, ANOVA test).
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Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000175884
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
NDF-RT N0000175369
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Code System Code Type Description
EPA CompTox
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022
Created by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022 , Edited by admin on Fri Dec 16 17:18:19 UTC 2022